Methylphenidate is a controlled class II drug.
It is indicated for treatment of attention
deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It
cannot be refilled under any circumstances.
(b)1050cc. In this type of calculation
first find out number of cc required for 1
Drug ml of solution
250 mg present 5 cc of solution
1000 mg ?
1000 x 5cc / 250 = 20 cc of solution.
Drug ml of solution
250 mg present in 5 cc of solution
750 mg ?
750 x 5cc / 250 = 15 cc of solution.
For a 30 day supply of Valproic acid
(20 cc (am) + 15 cc (pm) ) x 30 = 1050cc.
(b)Glyburide and Chlorpropamide are
oral sulfonylurea agents indicated for treatment
of diabetes. Pharmacy technician will notify
the pharmacist about duplication of therapy.
4. (d)Aspirin is a blood thinning agent indicated for prevention of heart stroke. It should be carefully prescribed with other blood thinning agents
because of risks of bleeding. Lovenox (Enoxaparin), Coumadin (Warfarin), Heparin, Plavix (Clopidogrel), Ticlid (Ticlopidine), Depakene (Valproic acid), Persantine (Dipyridamole), Mandol (Cefamandole), Cefotan (Cefotetan), Cefobid (Cefoperazone) and Moxam (Moxalactam) are agents that increase bleeding tendency in patients and should be carefully prescribed with other blood thinning agents.
(a)The overdose of Coumadin can be
treated by administration of Vitamin K1 (Mephyton).
(a)Compazine (Prochlorperazine) is
indicated for treatment of nausea and vomiting
and therefore is classified as an anti-emetic
(agent that prevent nausea and vomiting).
(b)The cost of 100 tablets of Olanzapine
is $420 and therefore the cost of one tablet
of Olanzapine would be $420/100 = $ 4.20.
The % mark-up on the prescription is 15%
Cost of prescription mark up on rx
$ 100 $ 15
$ 4.20 ?
15 x 4.20 / 100 = $ 0.63, therefore dispensing cost of each prescription would be
$ 4.20 + $ 0.63 = $ 4.83
The cost of 30 tablets would be $ 4.83 x 30 = $145.
(b)33 grams. For calculations of this
type the allegation method is very useful.
We want to prepare 500 gm of 0.2 % salicylic
acid by mixing talc (0 %) powder with 3 %
of Salicylic acid powder.
3 % salicy 0.2 (3 % sali)
0 % talc (no salicy) 2.8 (0% sali)
Total 3.0 (0.2 % sali)
We want to find out how many grams of 3 % salicylic acid required
Total parts of 0.2% sali Parts of 3 % sali
3 parts 0.2 parts 500 ?
500 x 0.2 / 3 = 33 grams of 3% salicylic acid required.
10. (b)Plavix (Clopidogrel) is a blood thinning agent. Agents of this class generally act by inhibiting aggregation of platelets which is thought to be the primary mechanism of blood clotting. It is indicated for prevention of heart stroke in patients with CHF.
(b)Asthma is characterized by increased
responsiveness of trachea and bronchi to various
stimuli and narrowing of airways. It is associated
with shortness of breath, chest tightness,
wheezing and coughing. The Beta-2 receptors
stimulation generally dilates the bronchial
smooth muscles and helps in controlling asthma.
Beta-2 receptors blockers generally constrict the smooth muscles of bronchi and may even aggregate asthma.
Metoprolol is a Beta-1 and Beta-2 receptor blockers indicated for treatment of hypertension and should be carefully prescribed in patient with asthma. Other choices such as Accolate and Atrovent are indicated for treatment of asthma.
(b)The prescription of CII controlled
drugs should be dispensed with specific quantity
mentioned on prescription by physician. MS-contin
is a controlled II drug and therefore correct
dispensing quantity would be 60.
(b)Prescription of controlled drugs
III, IV and V cannot be refilled more than
5 times. A patient must bring a new prescription
after this allowable refill is executed. Prescriptions
older than 6 months require a new prescription
(c)Otocort otic solution is intended
for ear use only. It should not be applied
to eyes and therefore the auxiliary label
"For ear use only" is required.
(c)Tamsulosin is the generic name
of Flomax. It is indicated for treatment of
B.P.H. All of the rest of the choices are
colony stimulator agents. They generally help
in stimulation of erythrocyte and granulocytes.
(d)150 cc. Lanoxin is available in
0.05 mg/ml. Patient is taking 0.25 mg per
Drug ml of solution
0.05 mg 1 ml
0.25 mg ?
0.25 x 1 / 0.05 = 5ml
for 30 days supply = 30 x 5cc = 150cc
17.(c) Lyrica (Pregabalin) is classified as a Schedule V controlled substance.It is indicated for:
1. Management of neuropathic pain associated with diabetic peripheral neuropathy
2. Management of postherpetic neuralgia
3. Adjunctive therapy for adult patients with partial onset seizures
4. Management of fibromyalgia
5. Management of neuropathic pain associated with spinal cord injury
18.(c) A prescription for Cymbalta can be filled by selecting Duloxetine. It is indicated for treatment of depression.
20. Answer: (b). 1. "Prescription" means:
(a). An order given individually for the person for whom prescribed, directly from the practitioner, or the practitioner's agent, to a pharmacist or indirectly by means of an order signed by the practitioner or an electronic transmission from the practitioner to a pharmacist.
(b). A chart order written for an inpatient specifying drugs which he or she is to take home upon discharge.
2. "Prescription" does not include a chart order written for an inpatient for use while he or she is an inpatient.
Answer: (d). All listed tasks cannot be performed by a pharmacy technician. The pharmacist in charge or the retail drug outlet shall determine the duties of pharmacy technicians based upon the needs of the drug outlet.
At time of employment the pharmacist in charge shall provide the technician with a description of the tasks that the technician may perform.
Pharmacy technicians are limited to performing tasks in the preparation of prescription legend drugs and nonjudgmental support services.
Permissible duties include the dispensing of drugs under the direct supervision of a pharmacist. Pharmacy technicians may also have access to a facsimile machine or computer used to receive original prescription drug orders via facsimile.
A pharmacy technician may not perform any of the following tasks:
A. Accept an original prescription drug order by telephone;
B. Clinically evaluate a patient profile relative to drugs that have or will be dispensed;
C. Perform patient counseling or suggesting over-the-counter or prescription products to a patient;
D. Make decisions that require the education and professional training of a pharmacist; or
E. Sign any federally-required controlled substance or inventory form.
22. Answer:(d). CDC Vaccine Storage Recommendations List:
Vaccines Require To Be Stored In Referigerator (2 to 8 degrees C):
23. Answer: (d), Flonase. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved Flonase Allergy Relief (fluticasone propionate 50 mcg spray)as an over-the-counter (OTC) treatment for temporary relief of the symptoms of hay fever or upper respiratory allergies.
Flonase Allergy Relief is the first and only over-the-counter nasal spray indicated for relief of all nasal and eye-related allergy symptoms3,4 including runny nose, sneezing, itchy nose, nasal congestion and itchy and watery eyes.Flonase Allergy Relief will be available at full prescription strength and to provide 24-hour non-drowsy allergy relief.
24. Answer: (d), All. The Ebola virus currently raging in West Africa has a well-earned reputation as one of the world's most deadly illnesses. But experts stress that early and intense medical care can greatly improve a person's chances of survival.
There's no cure or vaccine for Ebola, which wreaks life-threatening havoc within the body by attacking multiple organ systems at the same time.
Instead, doctors must fall back on the basics of "good meticulous intensive care," supporting the patient and targeting treatment toward the organs that are under attack by the virus.
The virus is particularly tough to combat because once it gets into the human body, it attacks so many different tissues. In contrast, most viruses tend to target one specific organ. For example, influenza goes after the respiratory system.
Ebola attacks every organ system, including the heart, lungs, brain, liver and kidneys. It even attacks a person's blood, thinning it and causing Ebola's trademark bleeding from multiple orifices.
25. (a) I only, Cardioviva is a natural, over-the-counter probiotic supplement. The probiotic strain in Cardioviva is Lactobacillus reuteri. It is clinically proven to support healthy Cholesterol levels in adults. The suggested dose is one 100 mg capsule twice daily with meals. Gas and bloating are commonly reported side effects of Cardioviva.
26. Answer:(d), All. Ebola hemorrhagic fever (Ebola HF) is one of numerous Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers. It is a severe, often fatal disease in humans and nonhuman primates (such as monkeys, gorillas, and chimpanzees).
Ebola HF is caused by infection with a virus of the family Filoviridae, genus Ebolavirus. When infection occurs, symptoms usually begin abruptly. The first Ebolavirus species was discovered in 1976 in what is now the Democratic Republic of the Congo near the Ebola River. Since then, outbreaks have appeared sporadically.
There are five identified subspecies of Ebolavirus. Four of the five have caused disease in humans: Ebola virus (Zaire ebolavirus); Sudan virus (Sudan ebolavirus); Taï Forest virus (Taï Forest ebolavirus, formerly Côte d'Ivoire ebolavirus); and Bundibugyo virus (Bundibugyo ebolavirus). The fifth, Reston virus (Reston ebolavirus), has caused disease in nonhuman primates, but not in humans.
27. Answer:II and III only.
1. S.T.E.P.S. stands for System for Thalidomide Education and Prescribing Safety, a proprietary education and restrictive distribution program for Thalomid (Thalidomide).
The S.T.E.P.S. program was developed because of the toxicity associated with fetal exposure to Thalomid (Thalidomide) and to minimize the chance of fetal exposure to Thalomid (Thalidomide).
2. Thalidomide in combination with Dexamethasone is indicated for the treatment of patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma and Erythema Nodosum Leprosum.
3. All prescribers must register in the S.T.E.P.S. Prescriber Registry via the Prescriber Registration Card that is located in every S.T.E.P.S. folder.
4. Only licensed prescribers may register. They should complete, sign, and return the Prescriber Registration Card. Prescriptions cannot be issued by telephone under this program.
5. Prescribers shall not prescribe more than 4 weeks (28 days) of therapy with no automatic refills. A patient shall be informed that all prescriptions must be filled within 7 days (NOT 3 days).
28. Answer: Management of chronic weight reduction. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Contrave (Naltrexone hydrochloride and Bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets) as treatment option for chronic weight management in addition to a reduced-calorie diet and physical activity.
The drug is approved for use in adults with a body mass index (BMI) of 30 or greater (obesity) or adults with a BMI of 27 or greater (overweight) who have at least one weight-related condition such as high blood pressure (hypertension), type 2 diabetes, or high cholesterol (dyslipidemia).
The most common adverse reactions reported with Contrave include nausea, constipation, headache, vomiting, dizziness, insomnia, dry mouth, and diarrhea.
29. Vitamin D3. Alendronate sodium is a bisphosphonate that acts as a specific inhibitor of osteoclast mediated bone resorption. Bisphosphonates are synthetic analogs of pyrophosphate that bind to the hydroxyapatite found in bone.
Fosamax Plus D contains Alendronate sodium, a bisphosphonate, and Cholecalciferol (vitamin D3). Cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) is a secosterol that is the natural precursor of the calcium-regulating hormone calcitriol (1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3).
It is indicated for the treatment of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women and to increase bone mass in men with osteoporosis.
The recommended dosage is one 70 mg Alendronate/2800 international units vitamin D3 or one 70 mg Alendronate/5600 international units vitamin D3 tablet once weekly.
30. (b) 500 mg. Risedronate (Actonel) With Calcium is a co-package product containing Risedronate sodium tablets, 35 mg for once weekly dosing and calcium carbonate tablets, USP (1250 mg, equivalent to 500 mg elemental calcium) for daily dosing for the remaining 6 days of the week. Each package contains a 28-day course of therapy.
Risedronate (Actonel) is a pyridinyl bisphosphonate that inhibits osteoclast-mediated bone resorption and modulates bone metabolism. It is indicated for the treatment and prevention of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women.
Risedronate (Actonel) should be taken at least 30 minutes before the first food or drink of the day other than water. Risedronate (Actonel) should not be taken at the same time as other medications, including calcium.
To facilitate delivery to the stomach, Risedronate (Actonel) should be swallowed while the patient is in an upright position and with a full glass of plain water (6 to 8 oz). Patients should not lie down for 30 minutes after taking the medication.
Risedronate (Actonel) is not recommended for use in patients with severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance < 30 mL/min). No dosage adjustment is necessary in patients with a creatinine clearance ≥ 30 mL/min or in the elderly.
One 1250 mg calcium carbonate tablet (500 mg elemental calcium) orally, taken with food daily on each of the remaining six days (Days 2 through 7 of the 7-day treatment cycle).
Arthralgia, myalgia and nausea are commonly reported side effects of Risedronate (Actonel).
31. Hyperlipidemia. Ezetimibe (Zetia), administered alone, is indicated as adjunctive therapy to diet for the reduction of elevated total cholesterol (total-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), apolipoprotein B (Apo B), and nonhigh- density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) in patients with primary (heterozygous familial and nonfamilial) hyperlipidemia.
The combination of Ezetimibe (Zetia) and Atorvastatin or Simvastatin is indicated for the reduction of elevated total-C and LDL-C levels in patients with Homozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia (HoFH).
It is also indicated as adjunctive therapy to diet for the reduction of elevated sitosterol and campesterol levels in patients with homozygous familial sitosterolemia.
The recommended dose of Ezetimibe (Zetia) is 10 mg once daily with or without food. Liver enzyme abnormalities, rhabdomyolysis and myopathy are commonly reported side effects of Zetia.
32. Answer: Eplerenone (Inspra) is a blocker of aldosterone binding at the mineralocorticoid receptor. It is available for oral administration contains 25 mg or 50 mg of Eplerenone (Inspra). It is indicated for the treatment of Congestive Heart Failure Post-Myocardial Infarction and Hypertension.
Treatment should be initiated at 25 mg once daily and titrated to the recommended dose of 50 mg once daily, preferably within 4 weeks as tolerated by the patient. Eplerenone (Inspra) may be administered with or without food.
Serum potassium should be measured before initiating Eplerenone (Inspra) therapy, within the first week, and at one month after the start of treatment or dose adjustment. Serum potassium should be assessed periodically thereafter.
For hypertensive patients receiving moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors (e.g., erythromycin, saquinavir, verapamil, and fluconazole), the starting dose of Eplerenone (Inspra) should be reduced to 25 mg once daily. In all patients taking Eplerenone (Inspra) who start taking a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor, check serum potassium and serum creatinine in 3-7 days.
Hyperkalemia, dizziness, diarrhea and abdominal pain are reported side effects of Eplerenone (Inspra).
33. Answer:b. Amiodarone (Cordarone) is a member of a class of antiarrhythmic drugs with predominantly Class III (Vaughan Williams' classification) effects, available for oral administration as pink, scored tablets containing 200 mg of Amiodarone hydrochloride.
Amiodarone (Cordarone) contains 37.3% iodine by weight. Therefore, it shall be carefully prescribed to patients suffering from hypo-hyper-thyroidism.
Because of its life-threatening side effects and the substantial management difficulties associated with its use, Amiodarone (Cordarone) is indicated only for the treatment of the following documented, life-threatening recurrent ventricular arrhythmias when these have not responded to documented adequate doses of other available antiarrhythmics or when alternative agents could not be tolerated.
1. Recurrent ventricular fibrillation.
2. Recurrent hemodynamically unstable ventricular tachycardia.
Loading doses of 800 to 1,600 mg/day are required for 1 to 3 weeks (occasionally longer) until initial therapeutic response occurs. Administration of Amiodarone (Cordarone) in divided doses with meals is suggested for total daily doses of 1,000 mg or higher, or when gastrointestinal intolerance occurs. If side effects become excessive, the dose should be reduced.
When adequate arrhythmia control is achieved, or if side effects become prominent, Amiodarone (Cordarone) dose should be reduced to 600 to 800 mg/day for one month and then to the maintenance dose, usually 400 mg/day.
Since grapefruit juice is known to inhibit CYP3A4-mediated metabolism of oral amiodarone in the intestinal mucosa, resulting in increased plasma levels of Amiodarone, grapefruit juice should not be taken during treatment with oral Amiodarone.
Since amiodarone is a substrate for CYP3A4 and CYP2C8, drugs/substances that inhibit CYP3A4 may decrease the metabolism and increase serum concentrations of Amiodarone.
Hepatic injury, hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, tremor, poor coordination and pulmonary fibrosis are commonly reported side effects of Amiodarone (Cordarone).
34. Answer: (d). Ledipasvir and Sofosbuvir (Harvoni) . Ledipasvir and Sofosbuvir (Harvoni)
is the first combination pill approved to treat chronic HCV genotype 1 infection. It is also the first approved regimen that does not require administration with interferon or ribavirin, two FDA-approved drugs also used to treat HCV infection.
Ledipasvir and Sofosbuvir (Harvoni) is a once-daily NS5A inhibitor and nucleotide analog polymerase inhibitor fixed-dose combination for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C genotype 1 infection. Both drugs in Harvoni interfere with the enzymes needed by HCV to multiply. Sofosbuvir is a previously approved HCV drug marketed under the brand name Sovaldi. Harvoni also contains a new drug called ledipasvir.
Ledipasvir and Sofosbuvir (Harvoni) is the third drug approved by the FDA in the past year to treat chronic HCV infection. The FDA approved Simeprevir (Olysio) in November 2013 and Sofosbuvir (Sovaldi) in December 2013.
The most common side effects reported in clinical trial participants were fatigue and headache.
35. Answer:(b), Loratadine. Normally, the active ingredient found in Tavist is Clemastine. It is indicated for the treatment of seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis; and chronic idiopathic urticaria. The recommended dose is 1.34 mg orally twice a day. Dosage may be increased as required, but not to exceed 2.68 mg orally 3 times a day.
Sedation, sleepiness, dizziness, disturbed coordination, epigastric distress, thickening of bronchial secretions are commonly reported side effects of Clemastine (Tavist).
The active ingredient found in Tavist ND is 10 mg Loratadine.
36. Answer:(c). The active ingredient found in Bydureon is Exenatide indicated for the treatment of type II diabetes mellitus. It is an incretin mimetic agent. Incretins, such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), enhance glucose-dependent insulin secretion and exhibit other antihyperglycemic actions following their release into the circulation from the gut. Bydureon is a GLP-1 receptor agonist that enhances glucose-dependent insulin secretion by the pancreatic beta-cell, suppresses inappropriately elevated glucagon secretion, and slows gastric emptying.
Bydureon is an extended-release formulation of Exenatide, administered as an injection once every 7 days (weekly). It is also available under the trade name Byetta. Byetta is an immediate release solution of Exenatide administered by SC route. Byetta should be initiated at 5 mcg administered twice daily at any time within the 60-minute period before the morning and evening meals (or before the two main meals of the day, approximately 6 hours or more apart).
Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, dyspepsia, injection site reactions, constipation and hypoglycemia are commonly reported side effects of Bydureon.
37. Answer: (c) II and III only. All Coricidin HBP (High Blood Pressure) products are free of decongestants and therefore they can safely be used in patients suffering from high blood pressure. The active ingredients found in Coricidin HBP Night are 500mg Acetaminophen, 10mg Dextromethorphan Hydrobromide and 2mg Chlorpheniramine. The active ingredients found in Coricidin HBP Day are 10mg Dextromethorphan Hydrobromide and 200mg Guaifenesin.
It is indicated for the symptomatic relief of cold and cough, runny nose and sneezing, and bronchial irritation. Since Coricidin HBP Night contains anti-histamine (Chlorpheniramine), it shall be carefully prescribed to patients suffering from glaucoma or BPH.
The recommended dose is 1 tablet every 6 hours, not more than 4 tablets in 24 hours.
Nausea, vomiting, sedation, drowsiness, dizziness and blurred vision are commonly reported side effects of the drug.
38. Answer: (e) Esomeprazole (Nexium). Esomeprazole (Nexium) is the S-Isomer of Omeprazole (Prilosec). It is classified as a Proton Pump Inhibitor (PPI).
It is indicated for the treatment of duodenal ulcer, gastric ulcer, Zollinger Ellison Syndrome and GERD. The OTC version of Esomeprazole (Nexium) 24 HR is also commonly known as “Purple Pill”.
It is supplied in delayed-release capsules and in packets for a delayed-release oral suspension. Each delayed-release capsule contains 20 mg, or 40 mg of Esomeprazole (Nexium).
Each packet of Esomeprazole (Nexium) for delayed-release oral suspension contains 2.5 mg, 5 mg, 10 mg, 20 mg, or 40 mg of Esomeprazole (Nexium), in the form of the same enteric-coated granules used in Esomeprazole (Nexium) delayed-release capsules.
The recommended dose is 20 to 40 mg once daily for 4 to 8 weeks.
Diarrhea, nausea, flatulence, abdominal pain, constipation, and dry mouth are commonly reported side effects of Esomeprazole (Nexium).
39. Answer: (c) The Z-drugs, which include Eszopiclone (Lunesta), Zolpidem (Ambien), and Zaleplon (Sonata), are benzodiazepine receptor agonists. That means they work in a similar way to the benzodiazepine drugs inside the brain. They are GABA agonists meaning they somewhat mimic the action of gamma-Aminobutyric acid, the inhibitory neurotransmitter and thereby induce sleepiness.
These drugs are sometimes referred to as non-benzodiazepine hypnotics or just non-benzodiazepines. That’s a dumb name, if you ask us. Too unspecific and vague, especially if you are not in the context of sleep medicine. Further, even within sleep medicine, there are compounds that are non-benzodiazepine hypnotics that would not be considered part of this class: antihistamines and Ramelteon, for instance.
One problem is that the chemists don’t have a category that these drugs all fall into which is narrow enough to signify what medical practitioners are talking about. These drugs are in the categories pyrazolopyrimidines, imidazopyridines or cyclopyrrones, but they are not all in the same category.
Therefore, we prefer the term Z-drugs. The generic names for these drugs all contain the letter Z, and it is as good a name as any.
40. Answer: (c) Interferons are proteins produced by tumor cells or host cells that are infected with viruses, bacteria and other unknown nucleic acids. Interferons also activate other cells that serve as part of the immune system and destroy invading pathogens.
Interferons are classed as: alpha (from white cells), beta (from fibroblasts) and gamma (from lymphocytes). Interferons enhance the immune system in many ways so can be used to treat different conditions involving the immune system.
Interferons used therapeutically are manufactured using recombinant DNA technology.
Interferon alphas are used to treat viral infections (chronic hepatitis, human papillomavirus) and treating cancer (hairy cell leukemia, AIDS related - Kaposi sarcoma, malignant melanoma).
Interferon betas are used to treat or slow down the progression of multiple sclerosis.
Interferon gamma is used to treat chronic granulomatous disease.
41. Answer: 96.7%. Ultraviolet light can cause oxidation, hydrolysis and loss of potency to sensitive meds in solution. This loss can be greatly minimised by protecting from light. Amber glass protection is expensive, foil wrapping is cumbersome and time consuming. Amber Bags offer a fast, cost effective solution. They effectively filter out 96.7% of the rays in the ultraviolet spectrum, providing the required safety.
42. Answer: (c) 240 mg/dl. Below is the chart that describes the correlation between A1C% and blood glucose concentration in mg/dl.
43. Answer: (C) All. Diabetes Risk Factors:
1. Physical inactivity.
2. First-degree relative with diabetes.
3. Women who delivered a baby >9 lb or were diagnosed with GDM.
4. High-risk race/ethnicity.
5. A1C ≥5.7%, Impaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT), or Impaired Fasting Glucose (IFG) on previous testing.
6. Hypertension (≥140/90 mm Hg or on therapy).
7. HDL-C <35 mg/dL ± TG >250 mg/dL.
44. Answer: True. The terms "prescription" and "drug order" do not include an order for medication requiring a prescription to be dispensed, which is provided for the immediate administration to the ultimate user or recipient.
45. Answer: Mifepristone (Mifeprex) is a synthetic steroid with antiprogestational effects.
Mifepristone (Mifeprex) is indicated for the medical termination of intrauterine pregnancy through 49 days' pregnancy. For purposes of this treatment, pregnancy is dated from the first day of the last menstrual period in a presumed 28 day cycle with ovulation occurring at mid-cycle.
The duration of pregnancy may be determined from menstrual history and by clinical examination. Ultrasonographic scan should be used if the duration of pregnancy is uncertain, or if ectopic pregnancy is suspected.
Any intrauterine device (“IUD”) should be removed before treatment with Mifepristone (Mifeprex) begins.
Patients taking Mifepristone (Mifeprex) must take 400 μg of Misoprostol two days after taking Mifepristone (Mifeprex) unless a complete abortion has already been confirmed before that time.
Day One: Mifeprex Administration
Patients must read the MEDICATION GUIDE and read and sign the PATIENT AGREEMENT before Mifeprex is administered.
Three 200 mg tablets (600 mg) of Mifeprex are taken in a single oral dose.
Day Three: Misoprostol Administration
The patient returns to the health care provider two days after ingesting Mifeprex. Unless abortion has occurred and has been confirmed by clinical examination or ultrasonographic scan, the patient takes two 200 μg tablets (400 μg) of misoprostol orally.
During the period immediately following the administration of Misoprostol, the patient may need medication for cramps or gastrointestinal symptoms.
The patient should be given instructions on what to do if significant discomfort, excessive vaginal bleeding or other adverse reactions occur and should be given a phone number to call if she has questions following the administration of the Misoprostol.
In addition, the name and phone number of the physician who will be handling emergencies should be provided to the patient.
Day 14: Post-Treatment Examination
Patients will return for a follow-up visit approximately 14 days after the administration of Mifeprex. This visit is very important to confirm by clinical examination or ultrasonographic scan that a complete termination of pregnancy has occurred.
Pregnancy termination by surgery is recommended in cases when Mifepristone (Mifeprex) and misoprostol fail to cause termination of intrauterine pregnancy.
Serious and sometimes fatal infections and bleeding occur very rarely following spontaneous, surgical, and medical abortions, including following Mifepristone (Mifeprex) use.
Ensure that the patient knows whom to call and what to do, including going to an Emergency Room if none of the provided contacts are reachable, if she experiences sustained fever, severe abdominal pain, prolonged heavy bleeding, or syncope, or if she experiences abdominal pain or discomfort or general malaise (including weakness, nausea, vomiting or diarrhea) more than 24 hours after taking Misoprostol.
46. Answer: Green. As used in this section, "cryogenic vessel" means an insulated metal container in the form of a cylinder or other design used to hold gases that have been liquefied by extreme reductions in temperature.
(C). Each cryogenic vessel subject to this section shall meet the following requirements:
(1). The vessel shall be properly labeled according to the medical gas contained in the vessel.
(2). The vessel shall be color coded as follows:
(a). Air - yellow;
(b). Carbon dioxide - gray;
(c). Cyclopropane - orange;
(d). Helium - brown;
(e). Nitrogen - black;
(f). Nitrous oxide - blue;
(g). Oxygen - green. The colors specified in this division shall not be used for any medical gas other than those specified in this division.
47. Answer: High risk for misuse, [https://www.nabp.net].
NARXCHECK is an automatic prescription drug abuse assessment and management tool for health care providers. Once integrated into the facility's system, NARxCHECK automatically queries the state PMP database to generate a report that includes a score for three different drug classes: narcotics, sedatives, and stimulants.
These three-digit scores (000-999) help practitioners to decide whether or not they need to review a patient history before prescribing additional medications.
The score is easy to read using the following guidelines:
1. Less than 200 = Be confident - low risk for misuse.
2. 200 - 500 = Be curious - moderate risk for misuse.
3. Greater than 500 = Be cautious - higher risk for misuse.
48(c). Levetiracetam (Spritam) is indicated for the treatment of partial onset seizures, myoclonic seizures and primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures in adults and children with epilepsy.
Spritam utilizes Aprecia's proprietary ZipDose® Technology platform, a groundbreaking advance that uses three-dimensional printing (3DP) to produce a porous formulation that rapidly disintegrates with a sip of liquid.1 While 3DP has been used previously to manufacture medical devices, this approval marks the first time a drug product manufactured with this technology has been approved by the FDA.
ZipDose Technology enables the delivery of a high drug load, up to 1,000 mg in a single dose. As a result, Spritam enhances the patient experience - administration of even the largest strengths of Levetiracetam (Spritam) with just a sip of liquid. In addition, with Spritam there is no measuring required as each dose is individually packaged, making it easy to carry this treatment on the go.
The recommended daily dose is 1000 to 3000 mg per day.
Sleepiness, weakness, dizziness, infection, tiredness, acting aggressive, nasal congestion, decreased appetite, and irritability are commonly reported side effects of Levetiracetam (Spritam).
Levetiracetam is also available under the trade names Keppra and Elepsia.
49. Answer: HSDD. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has recently approved Addyi (Flibanserin) to treat acquired, generalized hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) in premenopausal women. Prior to Addyi’s approval, there were no FDA-approved treatments for sexual desire disorders in men or women.
HSDD is characterized by low sexual desire that causes marked distress or interpersonal difficulty and is not due to a co-existing medical or psychiatric condition, problems within the relationship, or the effects of a medication or other drug substance.
HSDD is acquired when it develops in a patient who previously had no problems with sexual desire. HSDD is generalized when it occurs regardless of the type of sexual activity, the situation or the sexual partner.
Because of a potentially serious interaction with alcohol, treatment with Addyi will only be available through certified health care professionals and certified pharmacies.
Addyi can cause severely low blood pressure (hypotension) and loss of consciousness (syncope). These risks are increased and more severe when patients drink alcohol or take Addyi with certain medicines (known as moderate or strong CYP3A4 inhibitors) that interfere with the breakdown of Addyi in the body. Because of the alcohol interaction, the use of alcohol is contraindicated while taking Addyi.
Addyi is being approved with a risk evaluation and mitigation strategy (REMS), which includes elements to assure safe use (ETASU). The FDA is requiring this REMS because of the increased risk of severe hypotension and syncope due to the interaction between Addyi and alcohol.
The REMS requires that prescribers be certified with the REMS program by enrolling and completing training. Certified prescribers must counsel patients using a Patient-Provider Agreement Form about the increased risk of severe hypotension and syncope and about the importance of not drinking alcohol during treatment with Addyi.
Additionally, pharmacies must be certified with the REMS program by enrolling and completing training. Certified pharmacies must only dispense Addyi to patients with a prescription from a certified prescriber. Additionally, pharmacists must counsel patients prior to dispensing not to drink alcohol during treatment with Addyi.
50. Answer: (c). The active ingredient found in Onfi is Clobazam. It is classified as schedule IV controlled substance. Each Onfi (Clobazam) tablet contains 10 mg or 20 mg of clobazam. It is also available for oral administration as an off-white suspension containing clobazam at a concentration of 2.5 mg/mL.
Onfi (Clobazam) is classified as benzodiazepine. Clobazam potentiates the GABAergic neurotransmission by binding at the benzodiazepine site of the GABAa receptor.
Onfi (Clobazam) is indicated for the adjunctive treatment of seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS) in patients 2 years of age or older.
A daily dose of Onfi (Clobazam) greater than 5 mg should be administered in divided doses twice daily; a 5 mg daily dose can be administered as a single dose.
As with all antiepileptic drugs and benzodiazepines, withdraw Onfi (Clobazam) gradually. The patient should taper by decreasing the total daily dose by 5-10 mg/day on a weekly basis until discontinued.
Somnolence, depression, sedation, withdrawal symptoms, serious dermatological reactions and suicidal behavior and ideation are commonly reported side effects of Onfi (Clobazam).
51. Answer: (c). The U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved Rolapitant (Varubi) to prevent delayed phase chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (emesis). Rolapitant (Varubi) is approved in adults in combination with other drugs (antiemetic agents) that prevent nausea and vomiting associated with initial and repeat courses of vomit-inducing (emetogenic and highly emetogenic) cancer chemotherapy.
Rolapitant (Varubi) is a substance P/neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor antagonist. Activation of NK-1 receptors plays a central role in nausea and vomiting induced by certain cancer chemotherapies, particularly in the delayed phase. It is available in tablet form.
Rolapitant (Varubi) inhibits the CYP2D6 enzyme, which is responsible for metabolizing certain drugs. Varubi is contraindicated with the use of thioridazine, a drug metabolized by the CYP2D6 enzyme, because use of the two drugs together may increase the amount of thioridazine in the blood and cause an abnormal heart rhythm that can be serious.
The most common side effects in patients treated with Rolapitant (Varubi) include a low white blood cell count (neutropenia), hiccups, decreased appetite and dizziness.
52. Answer: (d) II and III are true. Durlaza is an aspirin formulation for secondary prevention in high-risk CVD patients. The aspirin delivery technology in Durlaza extends the release of aspirin in a manner designed to provide a stable antiplatelet effect over the course of the day.
Low-dose aspirin has been proven to reduce the risk of secondary cardiovascular events and mortality in high-risk patients with stable cardiovascular disease. This is primarily due to aspirin’s ability to inhibit platelet aggregation (blood clotting).
While the body is making platelets 24-hours a day, current immediate-release traditional aspirin only stays in the blood for about a mean duration of four to six hours, with peak plasma concentrations peaking after just 30 minutes.
Durlaza utilizes extended-release, microcapsule technology to prolong aspirin release. Durlaza offers the only once-daily, 24-hour antiplatelet therapy through the extended release of its 162.5mg dose, resulting in prolonged absorption, and sustained platelet exposure to aspirin. Durlaza, like immediate-release aspirin, increases the risk of bleeding and gastric ulceration, and may cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman.
53. Answer: Herpes zoster.
The following vaccines are required to be stored in refrigerator (2 to 8 degree C):
1. HepA (Hepatitis A)
2. HepB (Hepatitis B)
3. Hib (Haemophilus influenzae type b)
4. HPV (Human papilloma virus)
9. Any diphtheria/tetanus toxoid, pertussis combination
The following vaccines are required to be stored in freezer (-50 to -15 degrees C):
1. VAR (Varicella)
2. HZV (Herpes Zoster Vaccine)
3. MMRV = Measles, mumps, rubella, varicella
The following vaccines can be stored in refrigerator (2 to 8 degree C) or freezer (-50 to -15 degrees C):
1. MMR (Measles, mumps, rubella)
53. Answer: (a,b,c,d). TPN solutions are made according to a variety of formulations and compounding protocols. Thus, there are possibilities of calcium phosphate precipitates and many other chemical incompatibilities. Precipitates could develop because of a number of factors such as: the concentration, pH, and phosphate content of the amino acid solutions; the calcium and phosphorous additives; the order of mixing; the mixing process; or the compounder. The presence of a lipid emulsion in the TPN admixture would obscure the presence of any precipitate.
Because of the potential for life threatening events, caution should be taken to ensure that precipitates have not formed in any parenteral nutrition admixtures.
1. The amounts of phosphorous and of calcium added to the admixture are critical. The solubility of the added calcium should be calculated from the volume at the time the calcium is added. It should not be based upon the final volume.
Some amino acid injections for TPN admixtures contain phosphate ions (as a phosphoric acid buffer). These phosphate ions and the volume at the time the phosphate is added should be considered when calculating the concentration of phosphate additives. Also, when adding calcium and phosphate to an admixture, the phosphate should be added first.
2. The line should be flushed between the addition of any potentially incompatible components.
3. A lipid emulsion in a three-in-one admixture obscures the presence of a precipitate. Therefore, if a lipid emulsion is needed, either:
(1). use a two-in-one admixture with the lipid infused separately, or
(2). if a three-in-one admixture is medically necessary, then add the calcium before the lipid emulsion and according to the recommendations in number 1 above.
If the amount of calcium or phosphate which must be added is likely to cause a precipitate, some or all of the calcium should be administered separately. Such separate infusions must be properly diluted and slowly infused to avoid serious adverse events related to the calcium.
4. A filter should be used when infusing either central or peripheral parenteral nutrition admixtures. Standards of practice vary, but the following is suggested: a 1.2 micron air eliminating filter for lipid containing admixtures, and a 0.22 micron air eliminating filter for nonlipid containing admixtures.
54. Answer: 7 alphanumeric characters. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) announced a final rule that will facilitate the United States’ ongoing transition to an electronic health care environment through adoption of new healthcare code sets for use in electronic health care transactions. This rule adopts updated versions of the code sets, under the authority of HIPAA (ICD-10 final rule). The ICD-10 code sets replace the current ICD-9-CM code set.
The industry currently uses about 4,000 unique ICD-9-CM volume 3 codes to describe inpatient procedures. ICD-9 procedure codes are 3-4 digits in length (e.g., 47.01 – Laparoscopic appendectomy). With the ICD-10-PCS mandate, the length of inpatient procedure codes will increase to 7 alphanumeric characters (e.g., ODTJ4ZZ – Laparoscopic appendectomy).
55. Answer: (a,b). Dose adjustments may be necessary in patients with concomitant use of:
Strong CYP1A2 inhibitors (e.g., fluvoxamine, ciprofloxacin, or enoxacin);
Moderate or weak CYP1A2 inhibitors (e.g., oral contraceptives, or caffeine);
CYP2D6 or CYP3A4 inhibitors (e.g., cimetidine, escitalopram, erythromycin, paroxetine, bupropion, fluoxetine, quinidine, duloxetine, terbinafine, or sertraline);
CYP3A4 inducers (e.g., phenytoin, carbamazepine, St. John’s wort, and rifampin); or
CYP1A2 inducers (e.g., tobacco smoking).
58. Home ovulation tests usually detect a preovulatory surge in which of the following in the urine?
e. Luteinizing hormone
Answer: (e). An ovulation home test is used by women to help determine the time in the menstrual cycle when getting pregnant is most likely. The test detects a rise in luteinizing hormone (LH) in the urine. A rise in this hormone signals the ovary to release the egg.
59. Slow channel blocking drugs will reduce the movement of which substance into smooth muscle cells? (Select All that apply)
Answer: (c). Slow channel blockers inhibit the slow inward calcium current, which may prolong conduction and refractoriness in the AV node.
60. Which of the following inhibits CYP 3A4? (Select All that apply)
Answer: (a) Below is the list of drugs that inhibit specifically CYP 3A4:
16. Entacapone (high dose)
18. Ethinyl estradiol
23. Grapefruit juice
37. Paroxetine (weak)
41. Quinupristin and Dalfopristin
49. Valproic acid
61. Which of the following information is TRUE ABOUT anaerobic respiration? (Select All that apply)
a. Waste products are carbon dioxide and water.
b. It may produce between 36 and 38 ATP molecules.
c. In animals, including humans, the anaerobic cycle produces lactic acid, which causes muscle cramps.
d. The fermentation process in anaerobic respiration is roughly 5 percent as effective as what cells can do when they have access to oxygen.
e. In bacteria, it may produce nitrite, nitrogen gas, hydrogen sulfide, methane and acetic acid.
Answer (c, d and e). "Anaerobic" means without oxygen, and respiration refers to the processes in a cell that convert biochemical energy, such as that found in glucose, into usable energy in the form of ATP. Waste products like carbon dioxide are also produced during this process.
The fermentation process in anaerobic respiration is roughly 5 percent as effective as what cells can do when they have access to oxygen. An aerobic cycle may produce between 36 and 38 ATP molecules, while anaerobic respiration only creates 2 ATP molecules.
Since muscles often run out of oxygen during extreme exertion, anaerobic respiration keeps them running. In animals, including humans, the anaerobic cycle produces lactic acid, which causes muscle cramps. In order for these cramps to stop, oxygen must find its way back into the muscle again so these cells can switch back to aerobic respiration and stop building up lactic acid.
Anaerobic respiration is also common in bacteria that live in environments without oxygen; depending on the bacteria, the products of their respiration include nitrite, nitrogen gas, hydrogen sulfide, methane and acetic acid.
62. Which of the following best describes the Capitation System?
a. Risk free income for healthcare service providers.
b. Healthcare provider may get more incentive to provide an extended treatment to a patient.
c. A fixed amount of money per patient per unit of time paid in advance to the physician for the delivery of health care services.
d. A patient gets more benefit if he/she gets services from Healthcare provider receiving reimbursement through capitation.
e. Free prescription benefits to patients.
Answer: Capitation payments are used by managed care organizations to control health care costs. Capitation payments control use of health care resources by putting the physician at financial risk for services provided to patients. At the same time, in order to ensure that patients do not receive suboptimal care through under-utilization of health care services, managed care organizations measure rates of resource utilization in physician practices. These reports are made available to the public as a measure of health care quality, and can be linked to financial rewards, such as bonuses.
Capitation is a fixed amount of money per patient per unit of time paid in advance to the physician for the delivery of health care services. The actual amount of money paid is determined by the ranges of services that are provided, the number of patients involved, and the period of time during which the services are provided. Capitation rates are developed using local costs and average utilization of services and therefore can vary from one region of the country to another. In many plans, a risk pool is established as a percentage of the capitation payment. Money in this risk pool is withheld from the physician until the end of the fiscal year. If the health plan does well financially, the money is paid to the physician; if the health plan does poorly, the money is kept to pay the deficit expenses.
When the primary care provider signs a capitation agreement, a list of specific services that must be provided to patients is included in the contract. The amount of the capitation will be determined in part by the number of services provided and will vary from health plan to health plan, but most capitation payment plans for primary care services include the following:
· Preventive, diagnostic, and treatment services
· Injections, immunizations, and medications administered in the office
· Outpatient laboratory tests done either in the office or at a designated laboratory
· Health education and counseling services performed in the office
· Routine vision and hearing screening
63. Thiazide diuretics should NOT be used as a first line treatment for hypertension in patient suffering from:
b. Heart failure
e. Peripheral artery disease
Answer :(d). Thiazide diuretics may increase the reabsorption of uric acid from renal tubules and may cause hyperuricemia. It should NOT be used as a first line treatment for hypertension in patient suffering from gout.
64. Which of the following information is TRUE about Invokana (Canagliflozin)? (Select All that apply)
a. The 300-mg dose of Invokana is proven to show greater A1C reductions than Januvia.
b. It is a once-daily pill that works around the clock.
c. It is not for weight loss, but may help a patient to lose weight—on average 3%.
d. In most clinical trials, the majority of people taking Invokana reached an A1C goal of less than 7%.
e. The most common side effect associated with the use of Invokana is hypoglycemia.
Answer: (a,b,c, and d). Invokana (Canagliflozin) is a sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor indicated as an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The recommended starting dose is 100 mg once daily, taken before the first meal of the day. Dose can be increased to 300 mg once daily in patients tolerating Invokana (Canagliflozin) 100 mg once daily who have an eGFR of 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 or greater and require additional glycemic control. Invokana (Canagliflozin) is limited to 100 mg once daily in patients who have an eGFR of 45 to less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m2. Assess renal function before initiating Invokana (Canagliflozin). Do not initiate Invokana (Canagliflozin) if eGFR is below 45 mL/min/1.73 m2. Discontinue Invokana (Canagliflozin) if eGFR falls persistently below 45 mL/min/1.73 m2.
It can increase the risk of hypoglycemia when combined with insulin or an insulin secretagogue. A lower dose of insulin or insulin secretagogue may be required to minimize the risk of hypoglycemia when used in combination with Invokana (Canagliflozin).
It causes intravascular volume contraction. Symptomatic hypotension can occur after initiating Invokana (Canagliflozin)®, particularly in patients with impaired renal function (eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2), elderly patients, patients on either diuretics or medications that interfere with the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, or patients with low systolic blood pressure. Before initiating in patients with ≥1 of these characteristics, volume status should be assessed and corrected. Monitor for signs and symptoms after initiating.
The most common side effects of Invokana (Canagliflozin) include genital yeast infections, urinary tract infection, and changes in urination.
65. Which of the following drugs interacts with Invokana (Canagliflozin)? (Select All that apply)
Answer: (a and b). Co-administration of Canagliflozin with rifampin, a nonselective inducer of several UGT enzymes, including UGT1A9, UGT2B4, decreased Canagliflozin area under the curve (AUC) by 51%. This decrease in exposure to Canagliflozin may decrease efficacy. If an inducer of these UGTs (e.g., rifampin, phenytoin, phenobarbital, ritonavir) must be co-administered with Invokana (Canagliflozin) (Canagliflozin), consider increasing the dose to 300 mg once daily if patients are currently tolerating Invokana (Canagliflozin) 100 mg once daily, have an eGFR greater than 60 mL/min/1.73 m2, and require additional glycemic control.
Consider other antihyperglycemic therapy in patients with an eGFR of 45 to less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 receiving concurrent therapy with a UGT inducer and require additional glycemic control.
There was an increase in the AUC and mean peak drug concentration (Cmax) of digoxin (20% and 36%, respectively) when co-administered with Invokana (Canagliflozin) 300 mg. Patients taking Invokana (Canagliflozin) with concomitant digoxin should be monitored appropriately.
66. Which of the following statements correctly describes the mechanism of action of Invokana (Canagliflozin)?
a. Increase insulin sensitivity towards blood glucose.
b. Stimulates insulin release from functioning beta cells of pancreas.
c. Delayed the absorption of glucose from gut to blood.
d. Increase gluconeogenesis in the liver.
e. Increase excretion of glucose through kidney.
Answer: (e). Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2), expressed in the proximal renal tubules, is responsible for the majority of the reabsorption of filtered glucose from the tubular lumen. Canagliflozin is an inhibitor of SGLT2. By inhibiting SGLT2, Canagliflozin reduces reabsorption of filtered glucose and lowers the renal threshold for glucose (RTG), and thereby increases urinary glucose excretion (UGE).
67. Which of the following information is TRUE ABOUT Tall Man Letters? (Select All that apply).
a. Several studies have shown that highlighting sections of words using tall man lettering can make similar drug names easier to distinguish.
b. The Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP), the FDA, The Joint Commission, and other safety-conscious organizations such as the National Association of Boards of Pharmacy (NABP) have promoted the use of tall man letters as one means of reducing confusion between similar drug names.
c. Nearly all of surveyed (87%) conducted by ISMP for Tall Man Letters felt that the use of tall man letters by the medical product industry helped to reduce errors in drug selection.
d. Approximately 50% of all survey respondents reported using tall man letters in conjunction with pharmacy-generated product and shelf labels, computer screens, and medication administration records.
e. Use of the tall man letters on computer-generated pharmacy labels was the most prevalent and was considered to be most effective, whereas use of the letters on preprinted order forms was among the least prevalent and was considered to be least effective.
Answer: (a,b,c,d and e). Tall man (uppercase) letters are used within a drug name to highlight its primary dissimilarities and help to differentiate look-alike names. Several studies have shown that highlighting sections of words using tall man lettering can make similar drug names easier to distinguish, and fewer errors are made when tall man letters are used to differentiate products with look-alike names.
The Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP), the FDA, The Joint Commission, and other safety-conscious organizations such as the National Association of Boards of Pharmacy (NABP) have promoted the use of tall man letters as one means of reducing confusion between similar drug names.
From a survey conducted by the ISMP in 2008, most respondents appeared to agree. Nearly all of those surveyed (87%) felt that the use of tall man letters by the medical product industry helped to reduce errors in drug selection, and two-thirds (64%) reported that tall man lettering actually prevented them from dispensing or administering the wrong medication.
A fully alphabetized list of drug names with tall man lettering can be found at www.ismp.org/Tools/tallmanletters.pdf.
Approximately 50% of all survey respondents reported using tall man letters in conjunction with pharmacy-generated product and shelf labels, computer screens, and medication administration records. Half to three-quarters of respondents who used tall man letters with look-alike drug name pairs felt that this strategy was effective in reducing the risk of errors, depending on where it was used.
Use of the tall man letters on computer-generated pharmacy labels was the most prevalent and was considered to be most effective, whereas use of the letters on preprinted order forms was among the least prevalent and was considered to be least effective. In general, between one-quarter and one-third of respondents were undecided about the effectiveness of tall man letters, but very few reported that the letters were wholly ineffective in reducing the risk of errors. The use of tall man letters was less widely reported for drugs listed on prescriber order entry screens and smart pump libraries.
68. Which of the following information is/are TRUE about PMP InterConnect?
I. InterConnect is comprehensive and thorough tool for prescribers and dispensers to use in identifying potential opioid abuse.
II. InterConnect is a highly secure communications exchange platform that facilitates the transmission of PMP data across state lines to authorized requestors, while ensuring that each state’s data-access rules are enforced.
III. It is mandatory for all states to participate in PMP Interconnect.
a. I only
b. III only
c. I and II only
d. II and III only
Answer: (I and II only). PMP InterConnect is a highly secure communications exchange platform that facilitates the transmission of PMP data across state lines to authorized requestors, while ensuring that each state’s data-access rules are enforced. It is comprehensive and thorough tool for prescribers and dispensers to use in identifying potential opioid abuse. Additional information about PMP InterConnect, including a map of participants, is available in the Programs section of the NABP website. It is NOT MANDATORY for states to participate in PMP InterConnect.
Alabama, the District of Columbia, Massachusetts, and Pennsylvania have joined 38 other states by executing a memorandum of understanding with NABP to participate in NABP PMP InterConnect®. These states/jurisdictions will be working toward a live connection with other states in the coming months.
“A key enhancement of the Massachusetts Prescription Awareness Tool (MassPAT) is the sharing of interstate prescription data with nearly every state in the country,” said Eric J. Sheehan, JD, Acting Bureau Director, Massachusetts Department of Public Health, Bureau of Health Care Safety and Quality. “Through its collaboration with NABP, the connection between MassPAT and NABP’s PMP InterConnect will result in a more comprehensive and thorough tool for Massachusetts prescribers and dispensers to use in identifying potential opioid abuse.”
In addition, the New York Prescription Monitoring Program Registry and Vermont Prescription Monitoring System joined 31 state prescription monitoring programs (PMPs) that have already implemented use of PMP InterConnect, giving authorized PMP users the ability to request and share program data across state lines: Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Nevada, New Jersey, New Mexico, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Utah, Virginia, West Virginia, and Wisconsin.
In an effort to combat prescription drug abuse and diversion with neighboring states, New York announced in a press release that the state began sharing PMP data with New Jersey on April 14, 2016. Governor Andrew Cuomo said, “Sharing controlled substance data with neighboring states allows us to more effectively combat prescription drug abuse and fraud . . . Prescription drug abuse impacts families nationwide, and I am proud of the crucial step we are taking to stem this epidemic.” According to the press release, New York plans to extend its PMP data sharing efforts to other PMP InterConnect participants.
NABP also continues to work with other states to facilitate their participation. Three more states are currently reviewing the memorandum of understanding. NABP staff highlighted the importance of state PMPs in the fight against prescription drug abuse in a recent interview with NPR.
69. According to Washington State Pharmacy Law, which of the following information about Electronic Prescriptions for Controlled Substances (EPCS) is/are TRUE?
I. Electronic signatures are required on all electronically communicated prescriptions.
II. The prescription that is generated electronically and transmitted via fax shall follow the ECPS rules.
III. An ECPS cannot be used to prescribe Schedule II controlled substance.
a. I only
b. I and II only
c. II and III only
Answer: I only is true, [Washington State Pharmacy Law July 2016 News Letter].
All 50 states, including Washington State, have rules in place allowing electronic prescriptions for controlled substances (EPCS), including Schedule II medications.
Pharmacies and practitioners wishing to use EPCS must first select software that meets the requirements of Title 21 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §1311. The software application provider must be approved by the federal Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), and in Washington State it must also be approved by the Commission. Practitioners may not transmit, and pharmacies may not receive, EPCS until their software provider obtains a third-party audit or certification review that determines that their software application complies with DEA’s requirements and provides the audit/certification report to the practitioner/pharmacy.
Under Title 21 CFR §1300.03, electronic prescription is defined as a prescription that is generated on an electronic application and transmitted as an electronic data file. Therefore, an electronic prescription does not include prescriptions transmitted by facsimile, even if generated electronically and transmitted via fax, or printed on a computer printer.
An electronic signature is defined as a method of signing an electronic message that identifies a particular person as the source of the message and indicates the person’s approval of the information contained in the message.
According to DEA, electronic signatures are required on all electronically communicated prescriptions and are not allowed on CS prescriptions delivered by fax or hard copy to the pharmacy. CS prescriptions sent from fax to fax, computer to fax, printed on a computer printer, or manually written must all contain a manual signature. A manual, or wet, signature means the practitioner directly signs the prescription by hand using ink or indelible pencil.
Signing a signature pad on a computer so the prescription is printed or faxed with the signature image, or stamping the prescription with a signature stamp, does not meet DEA requirements for manual signatures. This also applies to EPCS where the electronic transmission fails and the prescription is returned to the practitioner by the intermediary.
These prescriptions must be manually signed by the prescriber before being faxed to the pharmacy, even if they include an electronic signature. Pharmacists should recognize they are responsible for ensuring CS prescriptions meet DEA signature requirements and contacting the prescriber whenever necessary.
70. The laboratory finding reveals that 57 year-old patient is suffering from metabolic acidosis. What kind of metabolic acidosis is he suffering from?
100% O2 Sat on Room Air
Electrolytes: Na 145 mEq/L, K 4.5 mEq/L, Cl 105 mEq/L, HCO3 25 mEq/L
a. Anion-gap metabolic acidosis
b. Non-Anion-gap metabolic acidosis
c. Cation gap metabolic acidosis
d. Non-Cation-gap metabolic acidosis
Answer(a): If the patient is suffering from metabolic acidosis (low pH with low HCO3), the next step is to calculate the anion gap because the anion gap helps determining the etiology of the metabolic acidosis.
The anion gap is the difference between the measured serum cations (positively charged particles) and the measured serum anions (negatively charged particles). The commonly measured cation is sodium and the measured anions include chloride and bicarbonate.
Anion gap = [Na+] - ([Cl-] + [HCO3-])
The normal anion gap value is between 8 and 12. An anion gap of greater than 12 is "increased".
The differential diagnosis for an elevated anion gap metabolic acidosis (simply called "anion gap acidosis") differs from the differential diagnosis for an non-elevated anion gap metabolic acidosis (simply called "non-anion gap acidosis").
So, in the above example:
Anion gap = [Na+] - ([Cl-] + [HCO3-])
Anion gap = 145 - (105 + 25)
Anion gap = 15
The calculated anion gap = 15(above the normal gap of 8-12), therefore there is an anion gap acidosis.
71. Which of the following information is/are TRUE ABOUT Essential Fatty Acids? [Select ALL That Apply]
a. Linoleic and alpha-linolenic are essential fatty acids.
b. Arachidonic acid is classified as ‘conditionally essential’ fatty acid.
c. Ideally, in the diet, the ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids should be between 1:1 and 4:1.
d. Excessive intake of omega-6 fatty acids can cause the deficiency of omega-3 fatty acids.
Answer (a, b, c and d). Essential fatty acids, or EFAs, are fatty acids that humans and other animals must ingest because the body requires them for good health but cannot synthesize them.
Only two fatty acids are known to be essential for humans: alpha-linolenic acid (an omega-3 fatty acid) and linoleic acid (an omega-6 fatty acid). Some other fatty acids are sometimes classified as "conditionally essential," meaning that they can become essential under some developmental or disease conditions; examples include docosahexaenoic acid and gamma-linolenic acid.
It is not only important to incorporate good sources of omega-3 and omega-6s in a diet, but also consume these fatty acids in the proper ratio. Omega-6 fatty acids compete with omega-3 fatty acids for use in the body, and therefore excessive intake of omega-6 fatty acids can inhibit the use of omega-3 fatty acids by the body.
Ideally, the ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids should be between 1:1 and 4:1. Instead, most Americans consume these fatty acids at a ratio of omega-6: omega-3 between 10:1 and 25:1, and are consequently unable to reap the benefits of omega-3s.
This imbalance is due to a reliance on processed foods and oils, which are now common in the Western diet. To combat this issue it is necessary to eat a low-fat diet with minimal processed foods and with naturally occurring omega-3 fatty acids. A lower omega-6: omega-3 ratio is desirable for reducing the risk of many chronic diseases.
Arachidonic acid is not one of the essential fatty acids. However, it does become essential if there is a deficiency in linoleic acid or if there is an inability to convert linoleic acid to arachidonic acid.
72. Which of the following are administered by Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS)? [Select ALL That Apply]
c. Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA)
d. Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP)
Answer (a, b, c and d). The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), a component of the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), administers Medicare, Medicaid, the Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP), the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA) and parts of the Affordable Care Act (ACA.
Along with the Departments of Labor and Treasury, CMS also implements the insurance reform provisions of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA) and most aspects of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) of 2010 as amended.
The Social Security Administration is responsible for determining Medicare eligibility, eligibility for and payment of Extra Help/Low Income Subsidy payments related to Part D Medicare, and collecting some premium payments for the Medicare program.
74. Which of the following information is/are TRUE ABOUT Naloxone? [Select All That Apply].
a. Naloxone hydrochloride is a pure opioid antagonist that competitively binds to μ-opioid receptors only when opioids are present.
b. No tolerance or dependence is associated with naloxone use
c. When comparing the μ-opioid receptor affinity of naloxone with that of most opioids, including heroin, naloxone has a greater affinity to bind to the receptor site.
d. Naloxone has a short duration of activity about 30 to 90 minutes.
Answer: (a, b, c and d). Naloxone was patented in 1961, was first approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1971, and is currently on the World Health Organization’s List of Essential Medicines.
Naloxone hydrochloride is a pure opioid antagonist that competitively binds to μ-opioid receptors only when opioids are present and bound at the receptor site. Naloxone demonstrates no effect on mu, kappa, or delta receptors in a person who has not taken opioids. No tolerance or dependence is associated with naloxone use.
The reversal of opioid toxicity with naloxone is dose dependent. Individuals who have used a particularly potent opioid (e.g., fentanyl), have high concentration of opioids in their system, or have used a long-acting opioid may require more frequent and/or larger doses of naloxone to reverse symptoms.
When comparing the μ-opioid receptor affinity of naloxone with that of most opioids, including heroin, naloxone has a greater affinity to bind to the receptor site. This mechanism allows naloxone to remove the opioid from the receptor site and then bind it more securely. When this occurs, respiratory depression resolves partially or fully (depending on the amount, form, and route of opioids taken), hypotension resolves, and CNS depression abates.
Depending on the type of opioid used, the individual may be at risk for experiencing rebound opioid toxicity and/or acute respiratory depression because of the short duration of activity of naloxone (i.e., 30–90 minutes).
This effect most often occurs when an individual has taken a long-acting opioid such as methadone or extended-release oxycodone. Naloxone’s short duration of action is an important reason to convey to patients that receiving emergency medical care for an opioid overdose is important, even if the person has responded to the naloxone.
Naloxone is not effective in treating overdoses of non-opioid prescription medicines like benzodiazepines or barbiturates. It also is not effective in overdoses with stimulants, such as cocaine and amphetamines, or other non-opioid illicit drugs such as MDMA (Ecstasy, Molly), GHB (G), or ketamine (Special K). However, a polysubstance overdose that includes opioids warrants the use of naloxone.
74. The 2016 CDC guideline for prescribing opioids suggests to reassess the evidence of “individual benefit and risk” when increasing daily dose to above ____ morphine milligrams equivalent per day.
Answer(b): The 2016 CDC guideline for prescribing opioids suggests to reassess the evidence of “individual benefit and risk” when increasing daily dose to above 50 morphine milligrams equivalent per day, and avoidance of doses greater than 90 MME per day.
75. A 35-year-old man who is a regular patient of yours comes to your pharmacy counter with a new prescription. His shoulders appear tense and his eyebrows are knit tightly.
He says to you, “I can’t believe I have to fill another prescription today. I was just in three weeks ago and spent $75 dollars on some fancy new medication that didn’t do a darn thing!” What might be an appropriate active listening response to this patient?
a. It must be very frustrating to have to try something new.
b. It’s too bad we can’t take a prescription back for a refund.
c. I can provide you with a smaller quantity this time.
d. Your doctor is trying to find the best medication for you.
Answer (a). It must be very frustrating to have to try something new. Answer “b” does not acknowledge the patient’s feelings; answer “c” moves to finding a solution without acknowledging the patient’s feelings and “d” is placating.
76. Which of the following is/are Type(s) of Refractive Errors? [Select All That Apply]
a. a only
b. a and b only
c. a, b and c only
d. a, b, c and d
Answer: (d) All. Refractive errors happen when the shape of your eye keeps light from focusing correctly on your retina (a light-sensitive layer of tissue at the back of your eye).
Each type of refractive error is different, but they all make it hard to see clearly.
Nearsightedness makes far-away objects look blurry. It happens when the eyeball grows too long from front to back, or when there are problems with the shape of the cornea (clear front layer of the eye) or the lens (an inner part of the eye that helps the eye focus). These problems make light focus in front of the retina, instead of on it.
Nearsightedness usually starts between ages 6 and 14. Children who spend more time outdoors during these years are less likely to develop nearsightedness, but experts aren’t sure why.
Severe nearsightedness (also called high myopia) can increase the risk of other eye conditions, like retinal detachment (when the retina is pulled away from its normal position).
Farsightedness makes nearby objects look blurry. It happens when the eyeball grows too short from front to back, or when there are problems with the shape of the cornea or lens. These problems make light focus behind the retina, instead of on it.
People with farsightedness are usually born with it.
Astigmatism can make far-away and nearby objects look blurry or distorted. It happens when the cornea or lens has a different shape than normal, which makes light bend differently as it enters the eye.
Some people with astigmatism are born with it, but many people develop it as children or young adults. People with astigmatism often have another refractive error, like nearsightedness or farsightedness.
Presbyopia makes it hard for middle-aged and older adults to see things up close. As you age, the lens in your eye gets harder and less flexible and stops focusing light correctly on the retina.
Everyone gets presbyopia as they get older, usually after age 45. Many people have another refractive error in addition to presbyopia.
77. Which of the following types of glaucoma is NOT CONSIDERED a primary glaucoma?
Answer: (c). Glaucoma is a group of eye diseases that are usually characterized by damage to the optic nerve and gradual vision loss that starts with losing peripheral (side) vision. People who have high eye pressure are at higher risk for glaucoma.
When experts don’t know what causes a type of glaucoma, that type is called a primary glaucoma.
Pigmentary glaucoma is considered secondary glaucoma.
1. Open-angle glaucoma
Treatments: Medicines, laser treatment, surgery
Open-angle glaucoma is the most common type in the United States, where 9 in 10 people with glaucoma have the open-angle type. Many people don’t have any symptoms until they start to lose their vision, and people may not notice vision loss right away.
Experts aren’t sure what causes open-angle glaucoma, but it may be caused by pressure building up in your eye. If the fluid in your eye can’t drain fast enough, it creates pressure that pushes on a nerve in the back of your eye (the optic nerve).
Over time, the pressure damages the optic nerve, which affects your vision. This can eventually lead to blindness — in fact, open-angle glaucoma causes almost 2 in 10 cases of blindness in African Americans. People with high blood pressure are also at higher risk for this type.
2. Normal-tension glaucoma
Treatments: Medicines, laser treatment, surgery
Normal-tension glaucoma is a type of open-angle glaucoma that happens in people with normal eye pressure. About 1 in 3 people with open-angle glaucoma have the normal-tension type.
You may be at higher risk for normal-tension glaucoma if you:
78. _______________ glaucoma happens when the eye makes extra blood vessels that cover the part of your eye where fluid would normally drain.
Answer: (a). Glaucoma is a group of eye diseases that are usually characterized by damage to the optic nerve and gradual vision loss that starts with losing peripheral (side) vision. People who have high eye pressure are at higher risk for glaucoma.
When experts don’t know what causes a type of glaucoma, that type is called a primary glaucoma.
Sometimes glaucoma is caused by another medical condition — this is called secondary glaucoma.
1. Neovascular glaucoma
Treatments: Medicines, laser treatment, surgery
Neovascular glaucoma happens when the eye makes extra blood vessels that cover the part of your eye where fluid would normally drain. It’s usually caused by another medical condition, like diabetes or high blood pressure.
If you have neovascular glaucoma, you may notice:
79. Which of the following statements is/are TRUE about postnatal depression (PND)? [Select All That Apply]
a. About 10% of women experiencing a mental health problem during pregnancy or postpartum.
b. PND can begin at any time within one year after delivery.
c. Patients may experience a persistent low mood, lack of interest and enjoyment in usual activities, low self-esteem or lack of energy
d. PND can also occur following miscarriage, stillbirth or in parents who adopt a child.
e. Asian women and women from a non-English speaking background may be affected to a greater extent to PND.
Answer: (a,b,c,d,e). All.
Pharmacists are likely to encounter patients affected by postnatal depression, therefore the ability to identify signs of this under-recognised disorder is essential for appropriate and prompt referral for help and support.
Maternal suicide remains the leading cause of death from a direct cause in the postnatal period, accounting for around 22% of maternal deaths reported in the UK between 2014 and 2016. With around 10% of women experiencing a mental health problem during pregnancy or postpartum, it is important for all healthcare professionals to understand and recognise the risk factors for perinatal mental health problems and know where to refer patients.
Postnatal depression (PND) can begin at any time within one year after delivery. It is a relatively common condition that occurs in around 10–15% of women following childbirth and around 10% of new fathers, although it is thought that the true prevalence is higher than this.
PND can also occur following miscarriage, stillbirth or in parents who adopt a child. In England, it is thought that particular ethnic groups (e.g. Asian women and women from a non-English speaking background) may be affected to a greater extent. This is possibly owing to cultural beliefs around depression, lack of integration and language barriers making it difficult to express difficulties in the postnatal period.
Many women will be emotional or experience mild mood changes in the first week after having a baby (referred to as the ‘baby blues’), but these feelings should be self-limiting.
In PND, these feelings last longer. Similar to depression, patients may experience a persistent low mood, lack of interest and enjoyment in usual activities, low self-esteem or lack of energy. In addition, they may feel as though they are a bad parent, are unable to cope with their baby or may feel indifferent to their baby.
80. Pharmacists should be able to recognise red flag signs of Postnatal depression (PND) and refer these patients immediately. Which of the following is/are Red flag signs or symptoms for postnatal depression?
I. Recent significant change in mental state or emergence of new psychiatric symptoms
II. New thoughts or acts of violent self-harm.
III. New and persistent expressions of incompetency as a mother, such as being over-critical for not recognising what the baby needs.
a. I only
b. I and II only
c. II and III only
Answer: (d). All. Pharmacists should be able to recognise red flag signs and symptoms of PND and refer these patients immediately.
Red flag signs for postnatal depression:
81. Which of the following is a genetic condition in which abnormal growth of the heart muscle fibers occurs, leading to the thickening of these fibers?
a. Dilated cardiomyopathy
b. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
c. Restrictive cardiomyopathy
d. Arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy
Answer: (b). Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.
1. Dilated cardiomyopathy: Dilated cardiomyopathy is the most common form of the disease. It typically occurs in adults between the ages of 20 and 60 years.
The disease often starts in the left ventricle, but it can eventually also affect the right ventricle.
Dilated cardiomyopathy can affect the structure and function of the atria, too.
2. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy:
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is a genetic condition in which abnormal growth of the heart muscle fibers occurs, leading to the thickening or "hypertrophy" of these fibers. The thickening makes the chambers of the heart stiff and affects blood flow. It can also increase the risk of electrical disturbances, called arrhythmias.
According to the Children's Cardiomyopathy Foundation, it is the second most common form of cardiomyopathy in children. In about one-third of affected children, diagnosis occurs before the age of 1 year.
3. Restrictive cardiomyopathy:
Restrictive cardiomyopathy occurs when the tissues of the ventricles become rigid and cannot fill with blood properly. Eventually, it may lead to heart failure. It is more common in older adults and can result from infiltrative conditions — those involving the accumulation of abnormal substances in bodily tissues — such as amyloidosis.
4. Arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy:
In arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy, fibrotic and fatty tissue replaces the healthy tissues of the right ventricle, which may cause irregular heart rhythms. In some cases, this process can also occur in the left ventricle.
According to research in the journal Circulation Research, arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy increases the risk of sudden cardiac death, especially in young people and athletes. It is a hereditary genetic condition.
In some cases, usually mild ones, there are no symptoms of cardiomyopathy.
However, as the condition progresses, a person may experience the following symptoms with varying degrees of severity:
82. What is the primary sign or symptom that differentiate bulimia from anorexia? [Select All That Apply]
a. lose weight rapidly
b. eating in secret
c. frequent overeating
d. developing acid reflux
e. developing anemia
Answer: (b,c and d). According to the National Institute of Mental Health, about 0.6% of adults in the United States experienced anorexia between 2001 and 2003, compared to 0.3% who experienced bulimia.
There are essential differences between anorexia and bulimia, and it is possible for a person to have both at the same time.
People with anorexia and bulimia may fixate on weight and appearance, and they may have a distorted body image. Both conditions result in a person trying to lose weight using unhealthy strategies.
There are key differences between anorexia and bulimia. People with anorexia tend to adopt extreme diets. They may restrict their food intake to a degree that can lead to malnourishment and even death.
Some people with anorexia exercise to excess. If a person is already malnourished, this amount of exercise may cause them to faint or experience other potentially severe adverse effects. Also, a person with anorexia may vomit or take laxatives to lose weight.
The primary characteristic of bulimia is episodes of binge eating followed by 'purging.' An episode may involve overeating and later vomiting, using laxatives, or administering enemas to get rid of the calories consumed.
The primary symptom of anorexia is restricting food intake with extreme dieting. The main symptom of bulimia is compensating for episodes of overeating by trying to purge the food.
Anorexia can cause a person to:
83. The FDA has recently approved Valtoco (Diazepam). How is it administered to a patient?
Answer: (e). Valtoco (diazepam nasal spray) is indicated for the acute treatment of intermittent, stereotypic episodes of frequent seizure activity (ie, seizure clusters, acute repetitive seizures) that are distinct from a patient’s usual seizure pattern in patients with epilepsy 6 years of age and older.
Valtoco is a proprietary formulation of diazepam incorporating the Science of Intravail. Intravail transmucosal absorption enhancement technology enables the non-invasive delivery of a broad range of protein, peptide and small molecule drugs.
84. Which of the following information is/are TRUE ABOUT Oscillopsia? [Select All That Apply]
a. It is the sensation that the surrounding environment is constantly in motion when it is, in fact, stationary.
b. It is usually a symptom of conditions that affect eye movement or the eye's ability to stabilize images, especially during movement.
c. It often links to types of ataxia, which is a condition that causes abnormal or involuntary eye movement.
d. The American Psychological Association describe oscillopsia as "the sensation of perceiving oscillating movement of the environment."
e. It is usually associated with neurological conditions, such as multiple sclerosis.
Answer: (a, b, d and e).
Oscillopsia is the sensation that the surrounding environment is constantly in motion when it is, in fact, stationary. It usually occurs as a result of conditions that affect eye movement or alter how parts of the eye, inner ear, and brain stabilize images and maintain balance. The American Psychological Association describe oscillopsia as "the sensation of perceiving oscillating movement of the environment."
It often links to types of nystagmus (not ataxia), which is a condition that causes abnormal or involuntary eye movement.
Some of the most common conditions that experts have associated with oscillopsia include:
1. neurological conditions, such as seizures, multiple sclerosis, and superior oblique myokymia
2. brain or head injuries, especially bilateral vestibular cerebellar injuries
3. conditions, such as stroke, that affect the eye muscles or muscles around the eyes
4. conditions that affect or damage the inner ear, including Meniere's disease
5. conditions that cause brain inflammation, such as tumors or meningitis
85. Which of the following information is/are TRUE ABOUT headaches during menstrual period? [Select All That Apply]
a. A menstrual migraine headache may occur before, during, or after a period.
b. Acute migraine headaches may occur when the level of estrogen in the body rises significantly.
c. Around 10% of females who experience migraine report that menstruation is a trigger for these headaches.
d. Premenstrual syndrome headaches typically occur before a period begins.
e. Sensitivity to bright lights and noise is also reported with the menstrual migraine.
Answer: (a, d and e).
A menstrual migraine headache may occur before, during, or after a period whereas premenstrual syndrome (PMS) headaches typically occur before a period begins.
Acute migraine headaches are normally reported when the level of estrogen in the body drops (not rises) significantly.
Around 60% (not 10%) of females who experience migraine report that menstruation is a trigger for these headaches.
Other symptoms of a menstrual migraine headache tend to include:
1. sensitivity to bright lights
2. sensitivity to noise
3. throbbing pain on one side of the head
86. Which of the following information is/are TRUE about Epidiolex? [Select All That Apply]
a. It is a prescription medicine that is used to treat seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome or Dravet syndrome in patients 2 years of age and older.
b. An active ingredient found in Epidiolex is Cannabidiol.
c. It is the first and Only FDA-Approved Prescription CBD.
d. The recommended starting dosage is 20 mg/kg taken twice daily.
e. It can cause transaminase elevations.
Answer: (a, d, c and e).
Epidiolex (Cannabidiol) is a prescription medicine that is used to treat seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome or Dravet syndrome in patients 2 years of age and older.
It is not known if Epidiolex (Cannabidiol) is safe and effective in children under 2 years of age. The active ingredient found in Epidiolex (Cannabidiol) is Cannabidiol.
It is the first and Only FDA-Approved Prescription Cannabidiol (CBD). It is classified as a schedule V controlled drug.
The recommended starting dosage is 2.5 mg/kg (Not 20 mg/kg) taken twice daily (5 mg/kg/day). After one week, the dosage can be increased to a maintenance dosage of 5 mg/kg twice daily (10 mg/kg/day).
Epidiolex (Cannabidiol) can cause transaminase elevations. Concomitant use of valproate and higher doses of Epidiolex (Cannabidiol) increase the risk of transaminase elevations. The therapy should be monitored by regularly checking serum transaminases (ALT and AST) and total bilirubin levels.
The most common side effects of Epidiolex (Cannabidiol) include sleepiness, decreased appetite, diarrhea, increase in liver enzymes, feeling very tired and weak, rash, sleep problems, and infections.