Page 8 - Management Theory 2023-2024 Edition
P. 8                                                                  Krisman

                             1. Social and Behavioral Aspect of  Pharmaceutical Care

            Pharmaceutical  Care:  It  is  the  study  of  the  logical  consequences  of  the  evolution  of  the  profession  of  the

            What is the true meaning of health?

            It is a very hard task to define health since it is not limited to a single factor. For  example,  if  we  try  to  define
            health by using medical definition, it would not be sufficient since there are sociological, epidemiological, health
            planning and physiological definitions as well. In short, it is hard to define health by using a single factor. In
            medical terms, health may be defined as the absence of disease or the maintenance of physiological parameters
            within accepted norms (e.g. blood glucose, blood pressure, cholesterol).

            Anderson has summarized epidemiological and health planning definitions into five major categories. These

            1.     Health as a product or outcome (the result of adequate planning and utilization of resources).
            2.     Health as a potential or capacity to achieve goals.
            3.     Health as an everchanging dynamic process (the interaction between agent, host, and environment).
            4.     Health as something experienced by individuals.
            5.     Health as an attribute of an individual.

            According to the World Health Organization, health is the state of complete physical, mental, and social well-
            being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.

            The  Quality  of  Pharmaceutical  Care:  The  quality of  pharmaceutical  care  can be  evaluated  and examined  by
            resources such as structure, process, and outcome components.

            A.     Structure  Resources: Structure resources are required to obtain high-level quality care. For example,
                   one must have laminar flow hood in order to provide the highest quality of parenterals admixtures. It
                   does not matter how efficient or smart you are, structural resources play an important role to address
                   the quality of care. Referring to the above example, obviously if you have a home-infusion company
                   without laminar flow hood, the quality of parenteral preparations will be considered poor. Therefore,
                   the structural resources would be considered necessary to obtain a high level of quality care.

            B.     Process Resources:  It refers to many activities performed by a pharmacist that are considered a part of
                   quality care. Referring to the parenteral preparation example; the use of aseptic technique while making
                   IV admixtures is defined as a process resource.

            C.     Outcomes:  It refers to the experience of a patient who receives the care. The high quality of care is
                   assumed  when  the  patient  experiences  the  desirable  outcomes.  Thus,  the  structure,  process,  and
                   outcomes are intended to be part of an integrated model of quality care assessment. Another example
                   that explains the quality of care is a hospital with a CAT scanner is presumed to render a higher quality
                   of care than a hospital without one.

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