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Which of the following types of glaucoma is NOT CONSIDERED a primary glaucoma?
 
a. Open-angle
b. Congenital
c. Pigmentary
d. Angle-closure


Which of the following types of glaucoma is NOT CONSIDERED a primary glaucoma?
 
a. Open-angle
b. Congenital
c. Pigmentary
d. Angle-closure

Answer: (c).  Glaucoma is a group of eye diseases that are usually characterized by damage to the optic nerve and gradual vision loss that starts with losing peripheral (side) vision. People who have high eye pressure are at higher risk for glaucoma.
 
Primary glaucomas:
When experts don’t know what causes a type of glaucoma, that type is called a primary glaucoma.
 
Pigmentary glaucoma is considered secondary glaucoma.
 
1. Open-angle glaucoma

Treatments: Medicines, laser treatment, surgery 
 
Open-angle glaucoma is the most common type in the United States, where 9 in 10 people with glaucoma have the open-angle type. Many people don’t have any symptoms until they start to lose their vision, and people may not notice vision loss right away.
 
Experts aren’t sure what causes open-angle glaucoma, but it may be caused by pressure building up in your eye. If the fluid in your eye can’t drain fast enough, it creates pressure that pushes on a nerve in the back of your eye (the optic nerve). 
 
Over time, the pressure damages the optic nerve, which affects your vision. This can eventually lead to blindness — in fact, open-angle glaucoma causes almost 2 in 10 cases of blindness in African Americans. People with high blood pressure are also at higher risk for this type.
 
2. Normal-tension glaucoma

Treatments: Medicines, laser treatment, surgery
 
Normal-tension glaucoma is a type of open-angle glaucoma that happens in people with normal eye pressure. About 1 in 3 people with open-angle glaucoma have the normal-tension type. 
 
You may be at higher risk for normal-tension glaucoma if you:
 

  • Are of Japanese ancestry
  • Have a family history of normal-tension glaucoma
  • Have had certain heart problems, like an irregular heartbeat
  • Have low blood pressure
 
Experts don’t know what causes normal-tension glaucoma, but research shows that treatments that lower eye pressure can help slow the disease and stop vision loss.
 
3. Angle-closure glaucoma

Treatments: Medicines, laser treatment
 
Angle-closure glaucoma, also called narrow-angle or acute glaucoma, is a medical emergency. Go to the doctor or emergency room immediately if you suddenly have:
 
  • Intense pain in your eye
  • Nausea
  • Red eyes
  • Blurred vision
 
In this type of glaucoma, the outer edge of the iris (the colored part of your eye) blocks fluid from draining out of the front of the eye. The fluid builds up quickly, causing a sudden increase in eye pressure. If it’s not treated, angle-closure glaucoma can cause blindness in just a few days.
 
A doctor can use laser treatment and give you medicine to help the fluid drain. This can lower eye pressure and protect your vision. Your doctor might treat both eyes to prevent future problems, even if you only have angle-closure glaucoma in one eye.
 
Another type of angle-closure glaucoma, sometimes called slow or chronic angle-closure glaucoma, happens more slowly and might not have any symptoms. Your doctor can treat this type with medicines, laser treatments, or surgery.
 
4. Congenital glaucoma

Treatments: Medicines, surgery
 
Some babies are born with glaucoma — this is called congenital glaucoma. About 1 out of 10,000 babies born in the United States have a defect (problem) in the eye that keeps fluid from draining normally.
 
In these cases, you can usually notice the symptoms right away. Children with congenital glaucoma:
 
  • Have cloudy eyes
  • Are sensitive to light
  • Make extra tears
  • May have eyes that are larger than normal
 
Surgery works very well to treat congenital glaucoma. If a doctor does surgery early enough, children with congenital glaucoma usually won’t have any permanent vision loss.
 
Several other types of glaucoma can also develop in children. Any glaucoma that affects babies or children is called pediatric glaucoma.
 
Source: www.pharmacyexam.com
Citation: https://www.nei.nih.gov/learn-about-eye-health/eye-conditions-and-diseases/glaucoma/types-glaucoma


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Which of the following is/are Type(s) of Refractive Errors? [Select All That Apply]
 
a. myopia
b. hyperopia
c. Astigmatism
d. Presbyopia
 
a. a only
b. a and b only
c. a, b and c only
d. a, b, c and d


Which of the following is/are Type(s) of Refractive Errors? [Select All That Apply]
 
a. myopia
b. hyperopia
c. Astigmatism
d. Presbyopia
 
a. a only
b. a and b only
c. a, b and c only
d. a, b, c and d
 
Answer: (d)  All. Refractive errors happen when the shape of your eye keeps light from focusing correctly on your retina (a light-sensitive layer of tissue at the back of your eye).
Each type of refractive error is different, but they all make it hard to see clearly.

Nearsightedness (myopia):

Nearsightedness makes far-away objects look blurry. It happens when the eyeball grows too long from front to back, or when there are problems with the shape of the cornea (clear front layer of the eye) or the lens (an inner part of the eye that helps the eye focus). These problems make light focus in front of the retina, instead of on it.
Nearsightedness usually starts between ages 6 and 14. Children who spend more time outdoors during these years are less likely to develop nearsightedness, but experts aren’t sure why.

Severe nearsightedness (also called high myopia) can increase the risk of other eye conditions, like retinal detachment (when the retina is pulled away from its normal position).

Farsightedness (hyperopia):

Farsightedness makes nearby objects look blurry. It happens when the eyeball grows too short from front to back, or when there are problems with the shape of the cornea or lens. These problems make light focus behind the retina, instead of on it.

People with farsightedness are usually born with it.

Astigmatism:

Astigmatism can make far-away and nearby objects look blurry or distorted. It happens when the cornea or lens has a different shape than normal, which makes light bend differently as it enters the eye.

Some people with astigmatism are born with it, but many people develop it as children or young adults. People with astigmatism often have another refractive error, like nearsightedness or farsightedness.

Presbyopia:

Presbyopia makes it hard for middle-aged and older adults to see things up close. As you age, the lens in your eye gets harder and less flexible and stops focusing light correctly on the retina.

Everyone gets presbyopia as they get older, usually after age 45. Many people have another refractive error in addition to presbyopia.
 
Source: www.pharmacyexam.com
Citation: https://www.nei.nih.gov/learn-about-eye-health/eye-conditions-and-diseases/refractive-errors/types-refractive-errors


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PharmacyExam is proud to announce it first mobile application for studying NAPLEX through Naplex Audio Books and Naplex Flash Cards. Please download and review the app free by clicking appropriate below link.

For Google Play Store

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We hope you like it.

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