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An immunofixation (IFE) blood test is used to identify which of the following types of proteins in blood? [Select All That Apply]
 
a. Albumin
 
b. Alpha-1 globulin
 
c. Alpha-2 globulin
 
d. Beta globulin
 
e. Gamma globulin


An immunofixation (IFE) blood test is used to identify which of the following types of proteins in blood? [Select All That Apply]
 
a. Albumin
 
b. Alpha-1 globulin
 
c. Alpha-2 globulin
 
d. Beta globulin
 
e. Gamma globulin

Answer: (a,b, c, d, e)
 
An immunofixation blood test, also known as protein electrophoresis, measures certain proteins in the blood. Proteins play many important roles, including providing energy for the body, rebuilding muscles, and supporting the immune system.
 
There are two main types of proteins in the blood: albumin and globulin. The test separates these proteins into subgroups based on their size and electrical charge. The subgroups are:
 

  1. Albumin
  2. Alpha-1 globulin
  3. Alpha-2 globulin
  4. Beta globulin
  5. Gamma globulin
 
Measuring the proteins in each subgroup can help diagnose a variety of diseases.


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Which of the following statements is/are TRUE ABOUT D-Dimer Test? [Select All That Apply]
 
a. A D-dimer test looks for trimethyl occulin in blood.
 
b. D-dimer is a protein fragment that's made when a blood clot dissolves in a body.
 
c. It is used to diagnose deep vein thrombosis.
 
d. The test is also known as fibrin degradation fragment.


Which of the following statements is/are TRUE ABOUT D-Dimer Test? [Select All That Apply]
 
a. A D-dimer test looks for trimethyl occulin in blood.
 
b. D-dimer is a protein fragment that's made when a blood clot dissolves in a body.
 
c. It is used to diagnose deep vein thrombosis.
 
d. The test is also known as fibrin degradation fragment.

Answer: (b, c, d)

A D-dimer test looks for D-dimer in blood. D-dimer is a protein fragment (small piece) that's made when a blood clot dissolves in a body. It is also known as a fragment D-dimer or fibrin degradation fragment test.
 
A D-dimer test is most often used to find out whether you have a blood clotting disorder. These disorders include:
 
1. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT), a blood clot that's deep inside a vein. These clots usually affect the lower legs, but they can also happen in other parts of the body.
 
2. Pulmonary embolism (PE), a blockage in an artery in the lungs. It usually happens when a blood clot in another part of the body breaks loose and travels to the lungs. DVT clots are a common cause of PE.
 
3. Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), a condition that causes too many blood clots to form. They can form throughout the body, causing organ damage and other serious complications. DIC may be caused by traumatic injuries or certain types of infections or cancer.
 
4. Stroke, a blockage in the blood supply to the brain.


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Which of the following is the first FDA-approved intravenous (IV) treatment for migraine prevention?
 
a. Imitrex
b. Relpax
c. Zomig
d. Cambia
e. Vyepti


Which of the following is the first FDA-approved intravenous (IV) treatment for migraine prevention?
 
a. Imitrex
b. Relpax
c. Zomig
d. Cambia
e. Vyepti
 
Answer: (e). 

The active ingredient found in Vyepti is Eptinezumab-jjmr. It is the first FDA-approved intravenous (IV) treatment for migraine prevention.
 
Vyepti (Eptinezumab-jjmr) is a humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) ligand and blocks its binding to the receptor.
 
The recommended dose is 100 mg every 3 months; some patients may benefit from a dose of 300 mg.


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Which of the following information is/are TRUE about Nexletol? [Select All That Apply]
 
a. An active ingredient found in Nexletol is Bempedoic acid.
 
b. It is indicated for reducing the elevated LDL-c level.
 
c. It is an ATP Citrate Lyase (ACL) inhibitor.
 
d. The recommended dose should be taken every 8 hours.
 
e. Hyperuricemia and increased risk of tendon rupture or injury is reported side effect of the drug.


Which of the following information is/are TRUE about Nexletol? [Select All That Apply]
 
a. An active ingredient found in Nexletol is Bempedoic acid.
 
b. It is indicated for reducing the elevated LDL-c level.
 
c. It is an ATP Citrate Lyase (ACL) inhibitor.
 
d. The recommended dose should be taken every 8 hours.
 
e. Hyperuricemia and increased risk of tendon rupture or injury is reported side effect of the drug.
 
Answer: (a, b, c, and e).  
 
The active ingredient found in Nexletol is Bempedoic acid. It is a tablet, an oral, once-daily, non-statin  (LDL-C) lowering medicine.
 
It is indicated as an adjunct to diet and maximally tolerated statin therapy for the treatment of adults with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HeFH) or established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) who require additional lowering of LDL-C.  
 
Nexletol is a first-in-class ATP Citrate Lyase (ACL) inhibitor that lowers LDL-C by inhibition of cholesterol synthesis in the liver.
 
Nexletol was generally well-tolerated in clinical studies. Label warnings and precautions include hyperuricemia, with the development of gout in a small percentage of patients, as well as increased risk of tendon rupture or injury.
 
Overall in Phase 3 studies, the adverse events reported most frequently in patients who received Nexletol were generally reported at similar rates in patients who received placebo.
The most common adverse events reported with Nexletol (incidence ≥ 2% and greater than placebo) were upper respiratory tract infections, muscle spasms, hyperuricemia, back pain, abdominal pain or discomfort, bronchitis, pain in extremity, anemia, and elevated liver enzymes.
 
Avoid concomitant use of Nexletol with Simvastatin greater than 20 mg.


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Which of the following information is/are TRUE about coronavirus? [Select All That Apply]
 
a. 2019-nCoV belongs to a family of single-stranded RNA viruses known as coronaviridae, a common type of virus which affects mammals, birds and reptiles.
 
b. In humans, it commonly causes mild infections, similar to the common cold, and accounts for 10-30% of upper respiratory tract infections in adults
 
c. Although the incubation period of the 2019-nCoV strain is currently unknown, the United States Centre for Disease Control indicates that symptoms may appear in as few as 2 days or as long as 14 days after exposure.
 
d. Similarly to other common respiratory tract infections, MERS and SARS are spread by respiratory droplets produced by an infected person when they sneeze or cough.
 
e. In severe cases, the coronavirus can cause kidney failure.


Which of the following information is/are TRUE about coronavirus? [Select All That Apply]
 
a. 2019-nCoV belongs to a family of single-stranded RNA viruses known as coronaviridae, a common type of virus which affects mammals, birds and reptiles.
 
b. In humans, it commonly causes mild infections, similar to the common cold, and accounts for 10-30% of upper respiratory tract infections in adults
 
c. Although the incubation period of the 2019-nCoV strain is currently unknown, the United States Centre for Disease Control indicates that symptoms may appear in as few as 2 days or as long as 14 days after exposure.
 
d. Similarly to other common respiratory tract infections, MERS and SARS are spread by respiratory droplets produced by an infected person when they sneeze or cough.
 
e. In severe cases, the coronavirus can cause kidney failure.

Answer: (a, b, c, d, e).  
 
A novel strain of coronavirus (temporarily named ‘2019-nCoV’ by the World Health Organization [WHO]) was first detected in December 2019 in Wuhan, a city in China’s Hubei province with a population of 11 million, after an outbreak of pneumonia without an obvious cause. The virus has now spread to countries across the globe.
 
Pharmacists are likely to come across worried patients, and/or those with cold and flu symptoms which may appear similar to those of 2019-nCoV.
 
2019-nCoV belongs to a family of single-stranded RNA viruses known as coronaviridae, a common type of virus which affects mammals, birds and reptiles.
 
In humans, it commonly causes mild infections, similar to the common cold, and accounts for 10-30% of upper respiratory tract infections in adults. More serious infections are rare, although coronaviruses can cause enteric and neurological disease.
 
Previous coronavirus outbreaks include Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), first reported in Saudi Arabia in September 2012, and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), identified in southern China in 2003. MERS infected around 2,500 people and led to more than 850 deaths while SARS infected more than 8,000 people and resulted in nearly 800 deaths. The case fatality rates for these conditions were 35% and 10%, respectively.
 
2019-nCoV is a new strain of coronavirus that has not been previously identified in humans. Although the incubation period of the 2019-nCoV strain is currently unknown, the United States Centre for Disease Control indicates that symptoms may appear in as few as 2 days or as long as 14 days after exposure.
 
Similarly, to other common respiratory tract infections, MERS and SARS are spread by respiratory droplets produced by an infected person when they sneeze or cough.
 
As this coronavirus affects the respiratory tract, common presenting symptoms include fever and dry cough, with some patients presenting with respiratory symptoms (e.g. sore throat, nasal congestion, malaise, headache and myalgia) or even struggling for breath.
 
In severe cases, the coronavirus can cause pneumonia, severe acute respiratory syndrome, kidney failure and death.


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What are active ingredients of Trijardy XR? [Select All That Apply]
 
a. empagliflozin
b. glyburide
c. linagliptin
d. metformin
e. nateglinide


What are active ingredients of Trijardy XR? [Select All That Apply]
 
a. empagliflozin
b. glyburide
c. linagliptin
d. metformin
e. nateglinide

Answer: (a,c,d).  

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved Trijardy XR (empagliflozin/linagliptin/metformin hydrochloride extended release tablets) to lower blood sugar in adults with type 2 diabetes, along with diet and exercise. Trijardy XR provides three type 2 diabetes medicines in one pill, including Jardiance® (empagliflozin), Tradjenta® (linagliptin) and metformin hydrochloride extended release. Trijardy XR is marketed by Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc. and Eli Lilly and Company.


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How one should take Rybelsus? [Select All That Apply]
 
a. Take on an empty stomach when you first wake up.
b. Take with no more than 4 ounces of plain water.
c. Wait at least 30 minutes before eating, drinking, or taking other oral medications.
d. It works best if you take Rybelsus 5 minutes before taking the meal.
e. It should be taken once a weekly.


How one should take Rybelsus? [Select All That Apply]
 
a. Take on an empty stomach when you first wake up.
b. Take with no more than 4 ounces of plain water.
c. Wait at least 30 minutes before eating, drinking, or taking other oral medications.
d. It works best if you take Rybelsus 5 minutes before taking the meal.
e. It should be taken once a weekly.
 
Answer: (a,b,c) The active ingredient found in Rybelsus is Semaglutide. It is a glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist indicated as:
1. an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
 
Rybelsus should be taken:
 
1. Take on an empty stomach when you first wake up.
2. Take with no more than 4 ounces of plain water.
3. Wait at least 30 minutes before eating, drinking, or taking other oral medications.
 
Instruct patients to take Rybelsus (Semaglutide) at least 30 minutes before the first food, beverage, or other oral medications of the day with no more than 4 ounces of plain water only. Waiting less than 30 minutes, or taking with food, beverages (other than plain water) or other oral medications will lessen the effect of Rybelsus (Semaglutide).
Waiting more than 30 minutes to eat may increase the absorption of Rybelsus (Semaglutide). Swallow tablets whole. Do not cut, crush, or chew tablets.
 
Start Rybelsus (Semaglutide) with 3 mg once daily for 30 days. After 30 days on the 3 mg dose, increase the dose to 7 mg once daily. Dose may be increased to 14 mg once daily if additional glycemic control is needed after at least 30 days on the 7 mg dose.

Source: www.pharmacyexam.com


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What are signs and symptoms of preeclampsia?
 
I. a persistent headache
II. swelling of the face or hands
III. shoulder pain
 
a. I only
b. I and II only
c. II and III only
d. All


What are signs and symptoms of preeclampsia?
 
I. a persistent headache
II. swelling of the face or hands
III. shoulder pain
 
a. I only
b. I and II only
c. II and III only
d. All
 
Answer: (d) All. Preeclampsia is a condition during pregnancy where there is a sudden rise in blood pressure and swelling, mostly in the face, hands, and feet.
 
Signs and symptoms associated with preeclampsia:
 
1. a headache that persists
2. swelling of the face or hands
3. changes in eyesight
4. sudden weight gain
5. shoulder pain
6. nausea and vomiting
 
Source: www.pharmacyexam.com


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Which of the following information is/are TRUE ABOUT headaches during menstrual period? [Select All That Apply]
 
a. A menstrual migraine headache may occur before, during, or after a period.
b. Acute migraine headaches may occur when the level of estrogen in the body rises significantly.
c. Around 10% of females who experience migraine report that menstruation is a trigger for these headaches.
d. Premenstrual syndrome headaches typically occur before a period begins.
e. Sensitivity to bright lights and noise is also reported with the menstrual migraine.


Which of the following information is/are TRUE ABOUT headaches during menstrual period? [Select All That Apply]
 
a. A menstrual migraine headache may occur before, during, or after a period.
b. Acute migraine headaches may occur when the level of estrogen in the body rises significantly.
c. Around 10% of females who experience migraine report that menstruation is a trigger for these headaches.
d. Premenstrual syndrome headaches typically occur before a period begins.
e. Sensitivity to bright lights and noise is also reported with the menstrual migraine.
 
Answer: (a, d and e).  
 
A menstrual migraine headache may occur before, during, or after a period whereas premenstrual syndrome (PMS) headaches typically occur before a period begins.
 
Acute migraine headaches are normally reported when the level of estrogen in the body drops (not rises) significantly.
 
Around 60% (not 10%) of females who experience migraine report that menstruation is a trigger for these headaches.
 
Other symptoms of a menstrual migraine headache tend to include:
 
1. sensitivity to bright lights
2. sensitivity to noise
3. throbbing pain on one side of the head
4. nausea
5. vomiting
 
Source: www.pharmacyexam.com


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Which of the following information is/are TRUE ABOUT Oscillopsia? [Select All That Apply]
 
a. It is the sensation that the surrounding environment is constantly in motion when it is, in fact, stationary.
b. It is usually a symptom of conditions that affect eye movement or the eye's ability to stabilize images, especially during movement.
c. It often links to types of ataxia, which is a condition that causes abnormal or involuntary eye movement.
d. The American Psychological Association describe oscillopsia as "the sensation of perceiving oscillating movement of the environment."
e. It is usually associated with neurological conditions, such as multiple sclerosis.


Which of the following information is/are TRUE ABOUT Oscillopsia? [Select All That Apply]
 
a. It is the sensation that the surrounding environment is constantly in motion when it is, in fact, stationary.
b. It is usually a symptom of conditions that affect eye movement or the eye's ability to stabilize images, especially during movement.
c. It often links to types of ataxia, which is a condition that causes abnormal or involuntary eye movement.
d. The American Psychological Association describe oscillopsia as "the sensation of perceiving oscillating movement of the environment."
e. It is usually associated with neurological conditions, such as multiple sclerosis.

Answer: (a, b, d and e).  
 
Oscillopsia is the sensation that the surrounding environment is constantly in motion when it is, in fact, stationary. It usually occurs as a result of conditions that affect eye movement or alter how parts of the eye, inner ear, and brain stabilize images and maintain balance. The American Psychological Association describe oscillopsia as "the sensation of perceiving oscillating movement of the environment."
 
It often links to types of nystagmus (not ataxia), which is a condition that causes abnormal or involuntary eye movement.
 
Some of the most common conditions that experts have associated with oscillopsia include:
 
1. neurological conditions, such as seizures, multiple sclerosis, and superior oblique myokymia
2. brain or head injuries, especially bilateral vestibular cerebellar injuries
3. conditions, such as stroke, that affect the eye muscles or muscles around the eyes
4. conditions that affect or damage the inner ear, including Meniere's disease
5. conditions that cause brain inflammation, such as tumors or meningitis
 
Source: www.pharmacyexam.com




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