Medication-overuse headache is generally classified as a:

a. Primary-headache
b. Secondary-headache
c. Tertiary-headache
d. Category II-headache
e. Category V-headache

Answer (b): Headaches are classified as primary or secondary according to the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD) 2018.

Primary headaches are not caused by underlying illness. ICHD further classifies primary headaches as tension-type headache, migraine, trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias, or other primary headache disorders.

Secondary headaches are associated with an underlying condition (e.g., head injury or trauma, infection, stroke, substance withdrawal, or facial or cranial disorders).

Medication-overuse headaches are considered secondary by ICHD although they are not caused by an underlying disease (but are attributed to the withdrawal effect of analgesic medication).

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