Hyperchloremic acidosis results from excessive loss of which of the following?

a. Water
b. Sodium bicarbonate
c. Lactic acid
d. Potassium

Answer: Sodium bicarbonate

Metabolic acidosis occurs when the body produces too much acid, or when the kidneys are not removing enough acid from the body.

There are several types of metabolic acidosis:

Diabetic acidosis (also called diabetic ketoacidosis and DKA) develops when substances known as ketone bodies, which are acidic, build up during uncontrolled type 1 diabetesHyperchloremic acidosis results from excessive loss of sodium bicarbonate from the body, as can happen with severe diarrhea.

Lactic acidosis is a buildup of lactic acid. It can be caused by:
Alcohol
Cancer
Exercising for a very long time
Liver failure
Low blood sugar (hypoglycemia)
Medications such as salicylates
Prolonged lack of oxygen from shock, heart failure, or severe anemia
Seizures

Other causes of metabolic acidosis include:

Kidney disease (distal tubular acidosis and proximal renal tubular acidosis), Poisoning by aspirin, ethylene glycol (found in antifreeze), or methanol Severe dehydration.