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Medication-overuse headache is generally classified as a:

a. Primary-headache
b. Secondary-headache
c. Tertiary-headache
d. Category II-headache
e. Category V-headache


Medication-overuse headache is generally classified as a:

a. Primary-headache
b. Secondary-headache
c. Tertiary-headache
d. Category II-headache
e. Category V-headache

Answer (b): Headaches are classified as primary or secondary according to the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD) 2018.

Primary headaches are not caused by underlying illness. ICHD further classifies primary headaches as tension-type headache, migraine, trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias, or other primary headache disorders.

Secondary headaches are associated with an underlying condition (e.g., head injury or trauma, infection, stroke, substance withdrawal, or facial or cranial disorders).

Medication-overuse headaches are considered secondary by ICHD although they are not caused by an underlying disease (but are attributed to the withdrawal effect of analgesic medication).

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Which of the following information is/are TRUE ABOUT headaches during menstrual period? [Select All That Apply]
 
a. A menstrual migraine headache may occur before, during, or after a period.
b. Acute migraine headaches may occur when the level of estrogen in the body rises significantly.
c. Around 10% of females who experience migraine report that menstruation is a trigger for these headaches.
d. Premenstrual syndrome headaches typically occur before a period begins.
e. Sensitivity to bright lights and noise is also reported with the menstrual migraine.


Which of the following information is/are TRUE ABOUT headaches during menstrual period? [Select All That Apply]
 
a. A menstrual migraine headache may occur before, during, or after a period.
b. Acute migraine headaches may occur when the level of estrogen in the body rises significantly.
c. Around 10% of females who experience migraine report that menstruation is a trigger for these headaches.
d. Premenstrual syndrome headaches typically occur before a period begins.
e. Sensitivity to bright lights and noise is also reported with the menstrual migraine.
 
Answer: (a, d and e).  
 
A menstrual migraine headache may occur before, during, or after a period whereas premenstrual syndrome (PMS) headaches typically occur before a period begins.
 
Acute migraine headaches are normally reported when the level of estrogen in the body drops (not rises) significantly.
 
Around 60% (not 10%) of females who experience migraine report that menstruation is a trigger for these headaches.
 
Other symptoms of a menstrual migraine headache tend to include:
 
1. sensitivity to bright lights
2. sensitivity to noise
3. throbbing pain on one side of the head
4. nausea
5. vomiting
 
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