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Keytruda is indicated for the treatment of: [Select ALL That Apply].
 
a. Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
b. Head and Neck Squamous Cell Cancer
c. Gastric Cancer
d. Esophageal Cancer
e. Cervical Cancer



Keytruda is indicated for the treatment of: [Select ALL That Apply].
 
a. Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
b. Head and Neck Squamous Cell Cancer
c. Gastric Cancer
d. Esophageal Cancer
e. Cervical Cancer

Answer: (a,b,c,d,e)

The active ingredient found in Keytruda is Pembrolizumab. It is available in injection (100 mg/4 mL) form.
 
Binding of the PD-1 ligands, PD-L1 and PD-L2, to the PD-1 receptor found on T cells, inhibits T cell proliferation and cytokine production. Upregulation of PD-1 ligands occurs in some tumors and signaling through this pathway can contribute to inhibition of active T-cell immune surveillance of tumors.

Pembrolizumab is a monoclonal antibody that binds to the PD-1 receptor and blocks its interaction with PD-L1 and PD-L2, releasing PD-1 pathway-mediated inhibition of the immune response, including the anti-tumor immune response. In syngeneic mouse tumor models, blocking PD-1 activity resulted in decreased tumor growth.

Keytruda is indicated for the treatment of:

a. Melanoma
b. Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC)
c. Small Cell Lung Cancer (SCLC)
d. Head and Neck Squamous Cell Cancer (HNSCC)
e. Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma (cHL)
f. Primary Mediastinal Large B-Cell Lymphoma (PMBCL)
g. Urothelial Carcinoma
h. Microsatellite Instability-High Cancer
i. Gastric Cancer
k. Esophageal Cancer
l. Cervical Cancer
m. Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC)
n. Merkel Cell Carcinoma (MCC)
o. Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC)
p. Endometrial Carcinoma
 
The usual recommended dose of Keytruda is 200 mg every 3 weeks or 400 mg every 6 weeks.  
 
Immune-Mediated pneumonitis, colitis, hepatitis, endocrinopathies, hypophysitis, nephritis and renal dysfunction are commonly reported side effects of the drug.
 
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What are the possible side effects of Farxiga? [Select All That Apply]:
 
a. Dehydration
b. Ketoacidosis
c. Urinary tract infections
d. Vaginal yeast infections
e. Balanitis


What are the possible side effects of Farxiga? [Select All That Apply]:
 
a. Dehydration
b. Ketoacidosis
c. Urinary tract infections
d. Vaginal yeast infections
e. Balanitis

Answer: (a,b,c,d,e)
 
The active ingredient found in Farxiga is Dapagliflozin (Farxiga).  
 
Farxiga may cause serious side effects including:
1. Dehydration
2. Ketoacidosis
3. Serious urinary tract infections (UTI)
4. Low blood sugar (hypoglycemia)
5. Bacterial infections under the skin of the genitals and areas around them
6. Vaginal yeast infections
7. Yeast infection of skin around the penis (balanitis) in men.

The most common side effects of Dapagliflozin (Farxiga) include yeast infections of the vagina or penis, and changes in urination, including urgent need to urinate more often, in larger amounts, or at night.


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Farxiga is indicated to [Select All That Apply]:
 
a. improve blood sugar control along with diet and exercise in adults with type 2 diabetes.
b. reduce the risk of hospitalization for heart failure in adults with type 2 diabetes.
c. reduce the risk of cardiovascular death and hospitalization for heart failure in adults with heart failure.
d. reduce the risk of diabetic ketoacidosis in adults with type 1 diabetes.


Farxiga is indicated to [Select All That Apply]:
 
a. improve blood sugar control along with diet and exercise in adults with type 2 diabetes.
b. reduce the risk of hospitalization for heart failure in adults with type 2 diabetes.
c. reduce the risk of cardiovascular death and hospitalization for heart failure in adults with heart failure.
d. reduce the risk of diabetic ketoacidosis in adults with type 1 diabetes.

Answer: (a,b,c)
 
The active ingredient found in Farxiga is Dapagliflozin (Farxiga).  Farxiga is indicated to:
 
1. improve blood sugar control along with diet and exercise in adults with type 2 diabetes.
2. reduce the risk of hospitalization for heart failure in adults with type 2 diabetes.
3. reduce the risk of cardiovascular death and hospitalization for heart failure in adults with heart failure.
 
Farxiga should not be used to treat people with type 1 diabetes or diabetic ketoacidosis (increased ketones in your blood or urine).
 
To improve glycemic control, the recommended starting dose of Farxiga is 5 mg orally once daily, taken in the morning, with or without food. In patients tolerating Farxiga 5 mg once daily who require additional glycemic control, the dose can be increased to 10 mg once daily.


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Farxiga is:

a. 5HT-1 receptor Antagonist
b. Alpha-2 inhibitor
c. Renin inhibitor
d. SGLT2 inhibitor
e. SSRI


Farxiga is:

a. 5HT-1 receptor Antagonist
b. Alpha-2 inhibitor
c. Renin inhibitor
d. SGLT2 inhibitor
e. SSRI

The active ingredient found in Farxiga is Dapagliflozin (Farxiga). It is the first sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor approved by the US FDA. It is available as tablets (5mg and 10mg).

Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) is the predominant transporter responsible for reabsorption of glucose from the glomerular filtrate back into the circulation. Dapagliflozin (Farxiga) is an inhibitor of SGLT2. By inhibiting SGLT2, Dapagliflozin (Farxiga) reduces renal reabsorption of filtered glucose and lowers the renal threshold for glucose, and thereby increases urinary glucose excretion.

Dapagliflozin (Farxiga) also reduces sodium reabsorption and increase the delivery of sodium to distal tubule. This may influence several physiological functions including, but not limited to, lowering both pre-and afterload of the heart and downregulation of sympathetic activity.

Dapagliflozin (Farxiga) is a prescription medicine used to:

1. improve blood sugar control along with diet and exercise in adults with type 2 diabetes

2. reduce the risk of hospitalization for heart failure in adults with type 2 diabetes and known cardiovascular disease or multiple cardiovascular risk factors

3. reduce the risk of cardiovascular death and hospitalization for heart failure in adults with heart failure (when the heart is weak and cannot pump enough blood to the rest of your body)

Dapagliflozin (Farxiga) should not be used to treat people with type 1 diabetes or diabetic ketoacidosis (increased ketones in your blood or urine).

Usual Adult Dose for Diabetes Type 2:

a. To improve glycemic control (can be taken with or without food):

1. Initial dose: 5 mg orally once a day
2. May increase to 10 mg orally once a day for additional glycemic control if lower dose has been tolerated
3. Maximum dose: 10 mg/day

b. To reduce the risk of hospitalization for heart failure: 10 mg orally once a day.

Dehydration, ketoacidosis, UTI infection, hypoglycemia and vaginal yeast infection are reported side effects of the drug.

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An immunofixation (IFE) blood test is used to identify which of the following types of proteins in blood? [Select All That Apply]
 
a. Albumin
 
b. Alpha-1 globulin
 
c. Alpha-2 globulin
 
d. Beta globulin
 
e. Gamma globulin


An immunofixation (IFE) blood test is used to identify which of the following types of proteins in blood? [Select All That Apply]
 
a. Albumin
 
b. Alpha-1 globulin
 
c. Alpha-2 globulin
 
d. Beta globulin
 
e. Gamma globulin

Answer: (a,b, c, d, e)
 
An immunofixation blood test, also known as protein electrophoresis, measures certain proteins in the blood. Proteins play many important roles, including providing energy for the body, rebuilding muscles, and supporting the immune system.
 
There are two main types of proteins in the blood: albumin and globulin. The test separates these proteins into subgroups based on their size and electrical charge. The subgroups are:
 

  1. Albumin
  2. Alpha-1 globulin
  3. Alpha-2 globulin
  4. Beta globulin
  5. Gamma globulin
 
Measuring the proteins in each subgroup can help diagnose a variety of diseases.


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Which of the following statements is/are TRUE ABOUT D-Dimer Test? [Select All That Apply]
 
a. A D-dimer test looks for trimethyl occulin in blood.
 
b. D-dimer is a protein fragment that's made when a blood clot dissolves in a body.
 
c. It is used to diagnose deep vein thrombosis.
 
d. The test is also known as fibrin degradation fragment.


Which of the following statements is/are TRUE ABOUT D-Dimer Test? [Select All That Apply]
 
a. A D-dimer test looks for trimethyl occulin in blood.
 
b. D-dimer is a protein fragment that's made when a blood clot dissolves in a body.
 
c. It is used to diagnose deep vein thrombosis.
 
d. The test is also known as fibrin degradation fragment.

Answer: (b, c, d)

A D-dimer test looks for D-dimer in blood. D-dimer is a protein fragment (small piece) that's made when a blood clot dissolves in a body. It is also known as a fragment D-dimer or fibrin degradation fragment test.
 
A D-dimer test is most often used to find out whether you have a blood clotting disorder. These disorders include:
 
1. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT), a blood clot that's deep inside a vein. These clots usually affect the lower legs, but they can also happen in other parts of the body.
 
2. Pulmonary embolism (PE), a blockage in an artery in the lungs. It usually happens when a blood clot in another part of the body breaks loose and travels to the lungs. DVT clots are a common cause of PE.
 
3. Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), a condition that causes too many blood clots to form. They can form throughout the body, causing organ damage and other serious complications. DIC may be caused by traumatic injuries or certain types of infections or cancer.
 
4. Stroke, a blockage in the blood supply to the brain.


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Which of the following drugs is indicated for the treatment of nausea and vomiting in pregnancy?

a. Zofran
b. Diclegis
c. Antivert
d. Benadryl
e. Motrin


Which of the following drugs is indicated for the treatment of nausea and vomiting in pregnancy?

a. Zofran
b. Diclegis
c. Antivert
d. Benadryl
e. Motrin

Answer: (b) Diclegis.

Nausea and vomiting in pregnancy (NVP) is common and often undertreated, in part due to fears of adverse effects of medications on the fetus during early pregnancy. In April 2013, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved doxylamine succinate 10 mg and pyridoxine hydrochloride (a vitamin B6 analog) 10 mg as a delayed-release combination pill called Diclegis for the treatment of NVP. Diclegis is currently the only medication that is FDA-approved for the indication of NVP.

The recommended dosing is as follow:

For oral dosage form (delayed-release tablets):

Adults-2 tablets taken at bedtime (Day 1). If symptoms are controlled the following day, continue taking 2 tablets at bedtime. If symptoms persist in the afternoon of Day 2, take 2 tablets at bedtime and start taking 3 tablets on Day 3 (1 tablet in the morning and 2 tablets at bedtime). If symptoms are controlled on Day 4, continue taking 3 tablets daily. Otherwise, take 1 tablet in the morning, 1 tablet in the mid-afternoon, and 2 tablets at bedtime (total of 4 tablets).

For oral dosage form (extended-release tablets):

Adults-1 tablet taken at bedtime (Day 1). If symptoms are controlled the following day, continue taking 1 tablet at bedtime. If symptoms persists on Day 2, take 1 tablet in the morning and 1 tablet at bedtime. However, the dose is usually not more than 2 tablets per day.

The drowsiness is more frequently reported side effect of the drug.

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Which of the following is the first FDA-approved intravenous (IV) treatment for migraine prevention?
 
a. Imitrex
b. Relpax
c. Zomig
d. Cambia
e. Vyepti


Which of the following is the first FDA-approved intravenous (IV) treatment for migraine prevention?
 
a. Imitrex
b. Relpax
c. Zomig
d. Cambia
e. Vyepti
 
Answer: (e). 

The active ingredient found in Vyepti is Eptinezumab-jjmr. It is the first FDA-approved intravenous (IV) treatment for migraine prevention.
 
Vyepti (Eptinezumab-jjmr) is a humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) ligand and blocks its binding to the receptor.
 
The recommended dose is 100 mg every 3 months; some patients may benefit from a dose of 300 mg.


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Which of the following information is/are TRUE about Nexletol? [Select All That Apply]
 
a. An active ingredient found in Nexletol is Bempedoic acid.
 
b. It is indicated for reducing the elevated LDL-c level.
 
c. It is an ATP Citrate Lyase (ACL) inhibitor.
 
d. The recommended dose should be taken every 8 hours.
 
e. Hyperuricemia and increased risk of tendon rupture or injury is reported side effect of the drug.


Which of the following information is/are TRUE about Nexletol? [Select All That Apply]
 
a. An active ingredient found in Nexletol is Bempedoic acid.
 
b. It is indicated for reducing the elevated LDL-c level.
 
c. It is an ATP Citrate Lyase (ACL) inhibitor.
 
d. The recommended dose should be taken every 8 hours.
 
e. Hyperuricemia and increased risk of tendon rupture or injury is reported side effect of the drug.
 
Answer: (a, b, c, and e).  
 
The active ingredient found in Nexletol is Bempedoic acid. It is a tablet, an oral, once-daily, non-statin  (LDL-C) lowering medicine.
 
It is indicated as an adjunct to diet and maximally tolerated statin therapy for the treatment of adults with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HeFH) or established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) who require additional lowering of LDL-C.  
 
Nexletol is a first-in-class ATP Citrate Lyase (ACL) inhibitor that lowers LDL-C by inhibition of cholesterol synthesis in the liver.
 
Nexletol was generally well-tolerated in clinical studies. Label warnings and precautions include hyperuricemia, with the development of gout in a small percentage of patients, as well as increased risk of tendon rupture or injury.
 
Overall in Phase 3 studies, the adverse events reported most frequently in patients who received Nexletol were generally reported at similar rates in patients who received placebo.
The most common adverse events reported with Nexletol (incidence ≥ 2% and greater than placebo) were upper respiratory tract infections, muscle spasms, hyperuricemia, back pain, abdominal pain or discomfort, bronchitis, pain in extremity, anemia, and elevated liver enzymes.
 
Avoid concomitant use of Nexletol with Simvastatin greater than 20 mg.


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Which of the following information is/are TRUE about coronavirus? [Select All That Apply]
 
a. 2019-nCoV belongs to a family of single-stranded RNA viruses known as coronaviridae, a common type of virus which affects mammals, birds and reptiles.
 
b. In humans, it commonly causes mild infections, similar to the common cold, and accounts for 10-30% of upper respiratory tract infections in adults
 
c. Although the incubation period of the 2019-nCoV strain is currently unknown, the United States Centre for Disease Control indicates that symptoms may appear in as few as 2 days or as long as 14 days after exposure.
 
d. Similarly to other common respiratory tract infections, MERS and SARS are spread by respiratory droplets produced by an infected person when they sneeze or cough.
 
e. In severe cases, the coronavirus can cause kidney failure.


Which of the following information is/are TRUE about coronavirus? [Select All That Apply]
 
a. 2019-nCoV belongs to a family of single-stranded RNA viruses known as coronaviridae, a common type of virus which affects mammals, birds and reptiles.
 
b. In humans, it commonly causes mild infections, similar to the common cold, and accounts for 10-30% of upper respiratory tract infections in adults
 
c. Although the incubation period of the 2019-nCoV strain is currently unknown, the United States Centre for Disease Control indicates that symptoms may appear in as few as 2 days or as long as 14 days after exposure.
 
d. Similarly to other common respiratory tract infections, MERS and SARS are spread by respiratory droplets produced by an infected person when they sneeze or cough.
 
e. In severe cases, the coronavirus can cause kidney failure.

Answer: (a, b, c, d, e).  
 
A novel strain of coronavirus (temporarily named ‘2019-nCoV’ by the World Health Organization [WHO]) was first detected in December 2019 in Wuhan, a city in China’s Hubei province with a population of 11 million, after an outbreak of pneumonia without an obvious cause. The virus has now spread to countries across the globe.
 
Pharmacists are likely to come across worried patients, and/or those with cold and flu symptoms which may appear similar to those of 2019-nCoV.
 
2019-nCoV belongs to a family of single-stranded RNA viruses known as coronaviridae, a common type of virus which affects mammals, birds and reptiles.
 
In humans, it commonly causes mild infections, similar to the common cold, and accounts for 10-30% of upper respiratory tract infections in adults. More serious infections are rare, although coronaviruses can cause enteric and neurological disease.
 
Previous coronavirus outbreaks include Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), first reported in Saudi Arabia in September 2012, and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), identified in southern China in 2003. MERS infected around 2,500 people and led to more than 850 deaths while SARS infected more than 8,000 people and resulted in nearly 800 deaths. The case fatality rates for these conditions were 35% and 10%, respectively.
 
2019-nCoV is a new strain of coronavirus that has not been previously identified in humans. Although the incubation period of the 2019-nCoV strain is currently unknown, the United States Centre for Disease Control indicates that symptoms may appear in as few as 2 days or as long as 14 days after exposure.
 
Similarly, to other common respiratory tract infections, MERS and SARS are spread by respiratory droplets produced by an infected person when they sneeze or cough.
 
As this coronavirus affects the respiratory tract, common presenting symptoms include fever and dry cough, with some patients presenting with respiratory symptoms (e.g. sore throat, nasal congestion, malaise, headache and myalgia) or even struggling for breath.
 
In severe cases, the coronavirus can cause pneumonia, severe acute respiratory syndrome, kidney failure and death.




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