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Thiazide diuretics should NOT be used as a first line treatment for hypertension in patient suffering from:

a. Hyperlipidemia
b. Heart failure
c. COPD
d. Gout
e. Peripheral artery disease


Thiazide diuretics should NOT be used as a first line treatment for hypertension in patient suffering from:

a. Hyperlipidemia
b. Heart failure
c. COPD
d. Gout
e. Peripheral artery disease

Answer :(d). Thiazide diuretics may increase the reabsorption of uric acid from renal tubules and may cause hyperuricemia. It should NOT be used as a first line treatment for hypertension in patient suffering from gout.

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Which of the following inhibits CYP 3A4?

a. Omeprazole
b. Lansoprazole
c. Pantoprazole
d. Rabeprazole
e. Esomeprazole


Which of the following inhibits CYP 3A4?

a. Omeprazole
b. Lansoprazole
c. Pantoprazole
d. Rabeprazole
e. Esomeprazole

Answer: (a) Below is the list of drugs that inhibit specifically CYP 3A4:

1. Amiodarone
2. Anastrozole
3. Azithromycin
4. Cannabinoids
5. Cimetidine
6. Clarithromycin
7. Clotrimazole
8. Cyclosporine
9. Danazol
10. Delavirdine
11. Dexamethasone
12. Diethyldithiocarbamate
13. Diltiazem
14. Dirithromycin
15. Disulfiram
16. Entacapone (high dose)
17. Erythromycin
18. Ethinyl estradiol
19. Fluconazole
20. Fluoxetine
21. Fluvoxamine
22. Gestodene
23. Grapefruit juice
24. Indinavir
25. Isoniazid
26. Ketoconazole
27. Metronidazole
28. Mibefradil
29. Miconazole
30. Nefazodone
31. Nelfinavir
32. Nevirapine
33. Norfloxacin
34. Norfluoxetine
35. Omeprazole
36. Oxiconazole
37. Paroxetine (weak)
38. Propoxyphene
39. Quinidine
40. Quinine
41. Quinupristin and Dalfopristin
42. Ranitidine
43. Ritonavir
44. Saquinavir
45. Sertindole
46. Sertraline
47. Troglitazone
48. Troleandomycin
49. Valproic acid

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Home ovulation tests usually detect a preovulatory surge in which of the following in the urine?

a. Prolactin
b. Oestrogen
c. Oxytocin
d. Progesterone
e. Luteinizing hormone


Home ovulation tests usually detect a preovulatory surge in which of the following in the urine?

a. Prolactin
b. Oestrogen
c. Oxytocin
d. Progesterone
e. Luteinizing hormone

Answer: (e). An ovulation home test is used by women to help determine the time in the menstrual cycle when getting pregnant is most likely. The test detects a rise in luteinizing hormone (LH) in the urine. A rise in this hormone signals the ovary to release the egg.

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What is a strain number of influenza virus in A/Texas/50/2012 (H3N2)?

a. A
b. Texas
c. 50
d. 2012
e. H3N2


What is a strain number of influenza virus in A/Texas/50/2012 (H3N2)?

a. A
b. Texas
c. 50
d. 2012
e. H3N2

Answer: (c) Influenza is named according to the type, the location of initial isolation, the strain designation, and the year of isolation. For example, A/Texas/50/2012 (H3N2), or H3N2, is influenza type A with origin in Texas, with strain No. 50, isolated in 2012 and of the H3N2 subtype.

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Botox (OnabotulinumtoxinA) inhibits the release which of the following?

a. Serotonin
b. Histamine
c. Acetylcholine
d. GABA
e. Dopamine


Botox (OnabotulinumtoxinA) inhibits the release which of the following?

a. Serotonin
b. Histamine
c. Acetylcholine
d. GABA
e. Dopamine

The active ingredient found in Botox is OnabotulinumtoxinA. It is an acetylcholine release inhibitor and a neuromuscular blocking agent.

Botox (OnabotulinumtoxinA) blocks neuromuscular transmission by binding to acceptor sites on motor or autonomic nerve terminals, entering the nerve terminals, and inhibiting the release of acetylcholine. This inhibition occurs as the neurotoxin cleaves SNAP-25, a protein integral to the successful docking and release of acetylcholine from vesicles situated within nerve endings.

When injected intramuscularly at therapeutic doses, Botox (OnabotulinumtoxinA) produces partial chemical denervation of the muscle resulting in a localized reduction in muscle activity. In addition, the muscle may atrophy, axonal sprouting may occur, and extrajunctional acetylcholine receptors may develop. There is evidence that reinnervation of the muscle may occur, thus slowly reversing muscle denervation produced by Botox (OnabotulinumtoxinA).

When injected intradermally, Botox (OnabotulinumtoxinA) produces temporary chemical denervation of the sweat gland resulting in local reduction in sweating.

Following intradetrusor injection, Botox (OnabotulinumtoxinA) affects the efferent pathways of detrusor activity via inhibition of acetylcholine release.

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RxExam Naplex Question Bank Subscription

For limited time, first 5000 students will get introducing subscription price for $50 for 3 months; after the initial period the price will be $250 for six months and $300 for tweleve months.

Demo version does not require credit card or registration.

Username: guest
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What are signs and symptoms of preeclampsia?
 
I. a persistent headache
II. swelling of the face or hands
III. shoulder pain
 
a. I only
b. I and II only
c. II and III only
d. All


What are signs and symptoms of preeclampsia?
 
I. a persistent headache
II. swelling of the face or hands
III. shoulder pain
 
a. I only
b. I and II only
c. II and III only
d. All
 
Answer: (d) All. Preeclampsia is a condition during pregnancy where there is a sudden rise in blood pressure and swelling, mostly in the face, hands, and feet.
 
Signs and symptoms associated with preeclampsia:
 
1. a headache that persists
2. swelling of the face or hands
3. changes in eyesight
4. sudden weight gain
5. shoulder pain
6. nausea and vomiting
 
Source: www.pharmacyexam.com


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Which of the following information is/are TRUE ABOUT headaches during menstrual period? [Select All That Apply]
 
a. A menstrual migraine headache may occur before, during, or after a period.
b. Acute migraine headaches may occur when the level of estrogen in the body rises significantly.
c. Around 10% of females who experience migraine report that menstruation is a trigger for these headaches.
d. Premenstrual syndrome headaches typically occur before a period begins.
e. Sensitivity to bright lights and noise is also reported with the menstrual migraine.


Which of the following information is/are TRUE ABOUT headaches during menstrual period? [Select All That Apply]
 
a. A menstrual migraine headache may occur before, during, or after a period.
b. Acute migraine headaches may occur when the level of estrogen in the body rises significantly.
c. Around 10% of females who experience migraine report that menstruation is a trigger for these headaches.
d. Premenstrual syndrome headaches typically occur before a period begins.
e. Sensitivity to bright lights and noise is also reported with the menstrual migraine.
 
Answer: (a, d and e).  
 
A menstrual migraine headache may occur before, during, or after a period whereas premenstrual syndrome (PMS) headaches typically occur before a period begins.
 
Acute migraine headaches are normally reported when the level of estrogen in the body drops (not rises) significantly.
 
Around 60% (not 10%) of females who experience migraine report that menstruation is a trigger for these headaches.
 
Other symptoms of a menstrual migraine headache tend to include:
 
1. sensitivity to bright lights
2. sensitivity to noise
3. throbbing pain on one side of the head
4. nausea
5. vomiting
 
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Which of the following information is/are TRUE ABOUT Oscillopsia? [Select All That Apply]
 
a. It is the sensation that the surrounding environment is constantly in motion when it is, in fact, stationary.
b. It is usually a symptom of conditions that affect eye movement or the eye's ability to stabilize images, especially during movement.
c. It often links to types of ataxia, which is a condition that causes abnormal or involuntary eye movement.
d. The American Psychological Association describe oscillopsia as "the sensation of perceiving oscillating movement of the environment."
e. It is usually associated with neurological conditions, such as multiple sclerosis.


Which of the following information is/are TRUE ABOUT Oscillopsia? [Select All That Apply]
 
a. It is the sensation that the surrounding environment is constantly in motion when it is, in fact, stationary.
b. It is usually a symptom of conditions that affect eye movement or the eye's ability to stabilize images, especially during movement.
c. It often links to types of ataxia, which is a condition that causes abnormal or involuntary eye movement.
d. The American Psychological Association describe oscillopsia as "the sensation of perceiving oscillating movement of the environment."
e. It is usually associated with neurological conditions, such as multiple sclerosis.

Answer: (a, b, d and e).  
 
Oscillopsia is the sensation that the surrounding environment is constantly in motion when it is, in fact, stationary. It usually occurs as a result of conditions that affect eye movement or alter how parts of the eye, inner ear, and brain stabilize images and maintain balance. The American Psychological Association describe oscillopsia as "the sensation of perceiving oscillating movement of the environment."
 
It often links to types of nystagmus (not ataxia), which is a condition that causes abnormal or involuntary eye movement.
 
Some of the most common conditions that experts have associated with oscillopsia include:
 
1. neurological conditions, such as seizures, multiple sclerosis, and superior oblique myokymia
2. brain or head injuries, especially bilateral vestibular cerebellar injuries
3. conditions, such as stroke, that affect the eye muscles or muscles around the eyes
4. conditions that affect or damage the inner ear, including Meniere's disease
5. conditions that cause brain inflammation, such as tumors or meningitis
 
Source: www.pharmacyexam.com


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Pharmacists should be able to recognise red flag signs of Postnatal depression (PND) and refer these patients immediately. Which of the following is/are Red flag signs or symptoms for postnatal depression?
 
I. Recent significant change in mental state or emergence of new psychiatric symptoms
II. New thoughts or acts of violent self-harm.
III. New and persistent expressions of incompetency as a mother, such as being over-critical for not recognising what the baby needs.
 
a. I only
b. I and II only
c. II and III only
d. All


Pharmacists should be able to recognise red flag signs of Postnatal depression (PND) and refer these patients immediately. Which of the following is/are Red flag signs or symptoms for postnatal depression?
 
I. Recent significant change in mental state or emergence of new psychiatric symptoms
II. New thoughts or acts of violent self-harm.
III. New and persistent expressions of incompetency as a mother, such as being over-critical for not recognising what the baby needs.
 
a. I only
b. I and II only
c. II and III only
d. All

Answer: (d).  All. Pharmacists should be able to recognise red flag signs and symptoms of PND and refer these patients immediately.
Red flag signs for postnatal depression:
 

  1. Recent significant change in mental state or emergence of new psychiatric symptoms;
  2. New thoughts or acts of violent self-harm;
  3. New and persistent expressions of incompetency as a mother, such as:
  • Estrangement from the infant;
  • Being over-critical for not recognising what the baby needs;
  • Saying that she/he is not doing things correctly;
  • Saying that she/he is not a good mother for her child;
  • Saying that the baby may be better cared for by someone else;
  • Saying that she/he is not providing good care for her baby or that other parents seem to be more able to look after their babies.
Patients with suicidal thoughts must be referred immediately to specialist perinatal mental health services.

Source: www.pharmacyexam.com
Citation: https://www.pharmaceutical-journal.com/cpd-and-learning/learning-article/postnatal-depression-recognition-and-diagnosis/20207360.article?firstPass=false