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How one should take Rybelsus? [Select All That Apply]
 
a. Take on an empty stomach when you first wake up.
b. Take with no more than 4 ounces of plain water.
c. Wait at least 30 minutes before eating, drinking, or taking other oral medications.
d. It works best if you take Rybelsus 5 minutes before taking the meal.
e. It should be taken once a weekly.


How one should take Rybelsus? [Select All That Apply]
 
a. Take on an empty stomach when you first wake up.
b. Take with no more than 4 ounces of plain water.
c. Wait at least 30 minutes before eating, drinking, or taking other oral medications.
d. It works best if you take Rybelsus 5 minutes before taking the meal.
e. It should be taken once a weekly.
 
Answer: (a,b,c) The active ingredient found in Rybelsus is Semaglutide. It is a glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist indicated as:
1. an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
 
Rybelsus should be taken:
 
1. Take on an empty stomach when you first wake up.
2. Take with no more than 4 ounces of plain water.
3. Wait at least 30 minutes before eating, drinking, or taking other oral medications.
 
Instruct patients to take Rybelsus (Semaglutide) at least 30 minutes before the first food, beverage, or other oral medications of the day with no more than 4 ounces of plain water only. Waiting less than 30 minutes, or taking with food, beverages (other than plain water) or other oral medications will lessen the effect of Rybelsus (Semaglutide).
Waiting more than 30 minutes to eat may increase the absorption of Rybelsus (Semaglutide). Swallow tablets whole. Do not cut, crush, or chew tablets.
 
Start Rybelsus (Semaglutide) with 3 mg once daily for 30 days. After 30 days on the 3 mg dose, increase the dose to 7 mg once daily. Dose may be increased to 14 mg once daily if additional glycemic control is needed after at least 30 days on the 7 mg dose.

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Ozempic (Semaglutide) is a glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist indicated as:

I. an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
II. to reduce the risk of major adverse cardiovascular events in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus and established cardiovascular disease.
III. an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

a. I only
b. III only
c. I and II only
d. II and III only
e. All


Ozempic (Semaglutide) is a glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist indicated as:

I. an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
II. to reduce the risk of major adverse cardiovascular events in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus and established cardiovascular disease.
III. an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

a. I only
b. III only
c. I and II only
d. II and III only
e. All

Answer: (c) I and II only. Ozempic (Semaglutide) is a glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist indicated as:

1. an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
2. to reduce the risk of major adverse cardiovascular events in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus and established cardiovascular disease.

It is available as 0.5 or 1 mg subcutaneous injection. It is not indicated for use in type 1 diabetes mellitus or treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis.

The recommended starting dose is 0.25 mg once weekly. After 4 weeks, increase the dose to 0.5 mg once weekly. If after at least 4 weeks additional glycemic control is needed, increase to 1 mg once weekly. It can be administered once weekly at any time of day, with or without meals.

The oral dosage form of this drug is available under the brand name of Rybelsus. It is available in 7 mg or 14 mg tablets. The tablet dosage form is indicated as:

1. an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

The most common adverse reactions, reported in greater than 5% of patients treated with Ozempic (Semaglutide) are: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain and constipation.

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Which of the following information is/are TRUE about Epidiolex? [Select All That Apply]

a. It is a prescription medicine that is used to treat seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome in patients 2 years of age and older.
b. An active ingredient found in Epidiolex is Cannabidiol.
c. It is the first and Only FDA-Approved Prescription CBD.
d. The recommended starting dosage is 20 mg/kg taken twice daily.
e. It can cause transaminase elevations.


Which of the following information is/are TRUE about Epidiolex? [Select All That Apply]

a. It is a prescription medicine that is used to treat seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome in patients 2 years of age and older.
b. An active ingredient found in Epidiolex is Cannabidiol.
c. It is the first and Only FDA-Approved Prescription CBD.
d. The recommended starting dosage is 20 mg/kg taken twice daily.
e. It can cause transaminase elevations.

Answer: (a, b, c and e).

Epidiolex (Cannabidiol) is a prescription medicine that is used to treat seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome or Dravet syndrome in patients 2 years of age and older.

It is not known if Epidiolex (Cannabidiol) is safe and effective in children under 2 years of age. The active ingredient found in Epidiolex (Cannabidiol) is Cannabidiol.

It is the first and Only FDA-Approved Prescription Cannabidiol (CBD).

The recommended starting dosage is 2.5 mg/kg (Not 20 mg/kg) taken twice daily (5 mg/kg/day). After one week, the dosage can be increased to a maintenance dosage of 5 mg/kg twice daily (10 mg/kg/day).

Epidiolex (Cannabidiol) can cause transaminase elevations. Concomitant use of valproate and higher doses of Epidiolex (Cannabidiol) increase the risk of transaminase elevations. The therapy should be monitored by regularly checking serum transaminases (ALT and AST) and total bilirubin levels.

The most common side effects of Epidiolex (Cannabidiol) include sleepiness, decreased appetite, diarrhea, increase in liver enzymes, feeling very tired and weak, rash, sleep problems, and infections.


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What is a strain number of influenza virus in A/Texas/50/2012 (H3N2)?

a. A
b. Texas
c. 50
d. 2012
e. H3N2


What is a strain number of influenza virus in A/Texas/50/2012 (H3N2)?

a. A
b. Texas
c. 50
d. 2012
e. H3N2

Answer: (c) Influenza is named according to the type, the location of initial isolation, the strain designation, and the year of isolation. For example, A/Texas/50/2012 (H3N2), or H3N2, is influenza type A with origin in Texas, with strain No. 50, isolated in 2012 and of the H3N2 subtype.

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Botox (OnabotulinumtoxinA) inhibits the release which of the following?

a. Serotonin
b. Histamine
c. Acetylcholine
d. GABA
e. Dopamine


Botox (OnabotulinumtoxinA) inhibits the release which of the following?

a. Serotonin
b. Histamine
c. Acetylcholine
d. GABA
e. Dopamine

The active ingredient found in Botox is OnabotulinumtoxinA. It is an acetylcholine release inhibitor and a neuromuscular blocking agent.

Botox (OnabotulinumtoxinA) blocks neuromuscular transmission by binding to acceptor sites on motor or autonomic nerve terminals, entering the nerve terminals, and inhibiting the release of acetylcholine. This inhibition occurs as the neurotoxin cleaves SNAP-25, a protein integral to the successful docking and release of acetylcholine from vesicles situated within nerve endings.

When injected intramuscularly at therapeutic doses, Botox (OnabotulinumtoxinA) produces partial chemical denervation of the muscle resulting in a localized reduction in muscle activity. In addition, the muscle may atrophy, axonal sprouting may occur, and extrajunctional acetylcholine receptors may develop. There is evidence that reinnervation of the muscle may occur, thus slowly reversing muscle denervation produced by Botox (OnabotulinumtoxinA).

When injected intradermally, Botox (OnabotulinumtoxinA) produces temporary chemical denervation of the sweat gland resulting in local reduction in sweating.

Following intradetrusor injection, Botox (OnabotulinumtoxinA) affects the efferent pathways of detrusor activity via inhibition of acetylcholine release.

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Demo version does not require credit card or registration.

Username: guest
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What are signs and symptoms of preeclampsia?
 
I. a persistent headache
II. swelling of the face or hands
III. shoulder pain
 
a. I only
b. I and II only
c. II and III only
d. All


What are signs and symptoms of preeclampsia?
 
I. a persistent headache
II. swelling of the face or hands
III. shoulder pain
 
a. I only
b. I and II only
c. II and III only
d. All
 
Answer: (d) All. Preeclampsia is a condition during pregnancy where there is a sudden rise in blood pressure and swelling, mostly in the face, hands, and feet.
 
Signs and symptoms associated with preeclampsia:
 
1. a headache that persists
2. swelling of the face or hands
3. changes in eyesight
4. sudden weight gain
5. shoulder pain
6. nausea and vomiting
 
Source: www.pharmacyexam.com


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Which of the following information is/are TRUE ABOUT headaches during menstrual period? [Select All That Apply]
 
a. A menstrual migraine headache may occur before, during, or after a period.
b. Acute migraine headaches may occur when the level of estrogen in the body rises significantly.
c. Around 10% of females who experience migraine report that menstruation is a trigger for these headaches.
d. Premenstrual syndrome headaches typically occur before a period begins.
e. Sensitivity to bright lights and noise is also reported with the menstrual migraine.


Which of the following information is/are TRUE ABOUT headaches during menstrual period? [Select All That Apply]
 
a. A menstrual migraine headache may occur before, during, or after a period.
b. Acute migraine headaches may occur when the level of estrogen in the body rises significantly.
c. Around 10% of females who experience migraine report that menstruation is a trigger for these headaches.
d. Premenstrual syndrome headaches typically occur before a period begins.
e. Sensitivity to bright lights and noise is also reported with the menstrual migraine.
 
Answer: (a, d and e).  
 
A menstrual migraine headache may occur before, during, or after a period whereas premenstrual syndrome (PMS) headaches typically occur before a period begins.
 
Acute migraine headaches are normally reported when the level of estrogen in the body drops (not rises) significantly.
 
Around 60% (not 10%) of females who experience migraine report that menstruation is a trigger for these headaches.
 
Other symptoms of a menstrual migraine headache tend to include:
 
1. sensitivity to bright lights
2. sensitivity to noise
3. throbbing pain on one side of the head
4. nausea
5. vomiting
 
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Which of the following information is/are TRUE ABOUT Oscillopsia? [Select All That Apply]
 
a. It is the sensation that the surrounding environment is constantly in motion when it is, in fact, stationary.
b. It is usually a symptom of conditions that affect eye movement or the eye's ability to stabilize images, especially during movement.
c. It often links to types of ataxia, which is a condition that causes abnormal or involuntary eye movement.
d. The American Psychological Association describe oscillopsia as "the sensation of perceiving oscillating movement of the environment."
e. It is usually associated with neurological conditions, such as multiple sclerosis.


Which of the following information is/are TRUE ABOUT Oscillopsia? [Select All That Apply]
 
a. It is the sensation that the surrounding environment is constantly in motion when it is, in fact, stationary.
b. It is usually a symptom of conditions that affect eye movement or the eye's ability to stabilize images, especially during movement.
c. It often links to types of ataxia, which is a condition that causes abnormal or involuntary eye movement.
d. The American Psychological Association describe oscillopsia as "the sensation of perceiving oscillating movement of the environment."
e. It is usually associated with neurological conditions, such as multiple sclerosis.

Answer: (a, b, d and e).  
 
Oscillopsia is the sensation that the surrounding environment is constantly in motion when it is, in fact, stationary. It usually occurs as a result of conditions that affect eye movement or alter how parts of the eye, inner ear, and brain stabilize images and maintain balance. The American Psychological Association describe oscillopsia as "the sensation of perceiving oscillating movement of the environment."
 
It often links to types of nystagmus (not ataxia), which is a condition that causes abnormal or involuntary eye movement.
 
Some of the most common conditions that experts have associated with oscillopsia include:
 
1. neurological conditions, such as seizures, multiple sclerosis, and superior oblique myokymia
2. brain or head injuries, especially bilateral vestibular cerebellar injuries
3. conditions, such as stroke, that affect the eye muscles or muscles around the eyes
4. conditions that affect or damage the inner ear, including Meniere's disease
5. conditions that cause brain inflammation, such as tumors or meningitis
 
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Pharmacists should be able to recognise red flag signs of Postnatal depression (PND) and refer these patients immediately. Which of the following is/are Red flag signs or symptoms for postnatal depression?
 
I. Recent significant change in mental state or emergence of new psychiatric symptoms
II. New thoughts or acts of violent self-harm.
III. New and persistent expressions of incompetency as a mother, such as being over-critical for not recognising what the baby needs.
 
a. I only
b. I and II only
c. II and III only
d. All


Pharmacists should be able to recognise red flag signs of Postnatal depression (PND) and refer these patients immediately. Which of the following is/are Red flag signs or symptoms for postnatal depression?
 
I. Recent significant change in mental state or emergence of new psychiatric symptoms
II. New thoughts or acts of violent self-harm.
III. New and persistent expressions of incompetency as a mother, such as being over-critical for not recognising what the baby needs.
 
a. I only
b. I and II only
c. II and III only
d. All

Answer: (d).  All. Pharmacists should be able to recognise red flag signs and symptoms of PND and refer these patients immediately.
Red flag signs for postnatal depression:
 

  1. Recent significant change in mental state or emergence of new psychiatric symptoms;
  2. New thoughts or acts of violent self-harm;
  3. New and persistent expressions of incompetency as a mother, such as:
  • Estrangement from the infant;
  • Being over-critical for not recognising what the baby needs;
  • Saying that she/he is not doing things correctly;
  • Saying that she/he is not a good mother for her child;
  • Saying that the baby may be better cared for by someone else;
  • Saying that she/he is not providing good care for her baby or that other parents seem to be more able to look after their babies.
Patients with suicidal thoughts must be referred immediately to specialist perinatal mental health services.

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Citation: https://www.pharmaceutical-journal.com/cpd-and-learning/learning-article/postnatal-depression-recognition-and-diagnosis/20207360.article?firstPass=false