PCAT® Sample Questions

 

1. Which of the following organelles helps green plants synthesize organic compounds like starch in the presence of sunlight?

a. Mitochondria
b. Chloroplast
c. Ribosomes
d. Golgi body


  View Answer

1. (b) Green plants, with the help of sunlight and in the presence of enzymes, synthesize organic compounds like starch from inorganic compounds like CO2 and H2O. This is known as photosynthesis. Chloroplast is the organelle to perform photosynthesis. Plants that are devoid of chloroplast cannot synthesize starch.


close
 

2. Which of the following is described as the "power house of the cell"?

a. Endoplasmic reticulum
b. Ribosomes
c. Mitochondria
d. Vacuoles


  View Answer

2. (c) Mitochondria is known as the "power house of the cell". It is involved in the continuous production of energy. It releases necessary energy for different functions of the cell through processes like respiration, electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation.


close
 

3. Virus should be classified as:

a. Akaryotic
b. Eukaryotic
c. Prokaryotic
d. Nokaryotic


  View Answer

3. (a) Each cell has two main components - Cytoplasm and the nucleus. Usually there is a nucleus in the cell. Organisms without any cytoplasmic organizations and devoid of definite nuclear material are grouped as Akaryota. (e.g. Virus) Organisms having a primitive type of nucleus in cell, are classified Prokaryota. (e.g. Bacteria and Blue green algae.) Organisms having a cell with a well developed nucleus are grouped as Eukaryota. (e.g. Fungi-yeast, mushroom).


close
 

4. In the process of Mitosis, if the number of chromosomes in the mother cell is designated as 2n, how many chromosomes will be present in each daughter cell?

a. 2n
b. n
c. 4n
d. 8n


  View Answer

4. (a) Cell division is a very complex process. There are two main types of cell division:

1. Mitosis
2. Meiosis

1 Mitosis: In this type of cell division, chromosomes are equally distributed in each daughter cell. As a result, the number of chromosomes in the daughter cells is the same as that in the mother cell. It is also known as equational division. (e.g. Somatic cells division)

2. Meiosis: In this type of cell division, chromosomes are divided in half of the original mother cells, therefore the daughter cells consist of half the number of chromosomes that are in the mother cell. (e.g. reproductive or sex cells division)


close
 

5. Nitrogen fixing bacteria on root nodules of Leguminous plants are known as:

a. Azobacteria
b. Nanobacteria
c. Rhizobium bacteria
d. Mycobacteria


  View Answer

5. (c) Nitrogen fixing bacteria on root nodules of Leguminous plants are known as Rhizobium. They fix the atmospheric nitrogen and convert it into ammonia. The nitrogen fixing bacteria are also known as nitrifying bacteria.

Azobacteria are present in the soil. They convert atmospheric nitrogen into nitrates and nitrites. In this way, they increase the fertility of the soil. These ammonium nitrates and nitrites are then absorbed by plants to obtain nitrogen.


close
 

6. Which of the following nitrogen bases is present in RNA but absent in DNA?

a. Cytosine
b. Uracil
c. Guanine
d. Adenine


  View Answer

6. (b) RNA consists of ribose pentose sugar. Unlike DNA, it consists of only one polynucleotide chain. It also contains two purine and pyrimidine bases. Uracil (U) is the nitrogen base which is present in RNA but absent in DNA. Thus RNA contains Adenine (A) and Guanine (G) as purine bases, and Cytosine (C) and Uracil (U) as pyrimidine bases.


close
 

7. Which of the following polysaccharides is largely stored in the liver and muscles?

a. Cellulose
b. Starch
c. Glycogen
d. Inulin


  View Answer

7. (c) Glycogen is considered the principal storage form of glucose and is found mainly in the liver and muscle, with kidney and intestines adding minor storage sites. Glycogen is formed by the liver from glucose in the bloodstream and is stored in the liver. Glycogen is also produced by and stored in muscle cells; during short periods of strenuous activity, energy is released in the muscles by direct conversion of glycogen to lactic acid. During normal activity, energy is released by metabolic oxidation of glucose to lactic acid. Glycogenesis (formation of glycogen from glucose) and glycogenolysis (break down of glycogen into glucose) are two principal mechanisms by which blood glucose level has been maintained.


close
 

8. Which of the following provides the necessary freedom for bones as well as protect joints from external injury and bones from dislocation?

a. Cartilage
b. Ligaments
c. Tendons
d. Muscles


  View Answer

8. (b) Ligaments are strong flexible white fibrous bands. They bind the articular surfaces of bones together. They provide necessary freedom for the bones as well as protect joints from external injury and bones from dislocation. Tendons are white bands which join muscles with bones while ligaments hold bones together at joints and are inelastic.


close
 

9. Which of the following lipids in a cell membrane acts as a selective barrier for controlling the exit and entry of substances into and out of the cell?

a. Cholesterol
b. Glycolipids
c. Phospholipids
d. Lipoproteins


  View Answer

9. (c) The primary type of lipids found in the cell membrane are phospholipids, cholesterol and glycolipids. Out of these, phospholipids play an important role in controlling the movement of substances into and out of the cell. In general, lipid soluble substances are allowed to move into the cell whereas water soluble molecules are restricted or not allowed to pass through the cell membrane.


close
 

10. Bile mainly helps in the digestion of:

a. Fats
b. Proteins
c. Carbohydrates
d. Bile pigments


  View Answer

10. (a) Bile (or gall) is a bitter, greenish-yellow alkaline fluid secreted by the liver of most vertebrates. It helps in the complete digestion of fats by reducing surface tension. It also activates the enzyme lipase. It serves as a good solvent for fats and fat-splitting enzymes. Bile also helps in absorption of carbohydrates, fats, fat soluble vitamins and proteins.


close
 

11. The region in space where an electron is likely to be found is called a(n):

a. Axis
b. Cloud
c. Orbital
d. Configuration


  View Answer

11. (c) The region in space where an electron is likely to be found is called an orbital. There are different kinds of orbitals with different sizes and shapes. The orbital at the lowest energy level is defined as a 1s orbital. It is a sphere with its center at the nucleus of the atom. The next higher energy level is called a 2s orbital. It is larger than a 1s orbital. Since it has a higher energy level, it has lower stability compared to a 1s orbital. This is because the average distance between the nucleus and electrons in a 2s orbital is greater than in a 1s orbital. The next three orbitals are of equal energy, known as 2p orbitals. They are dumbbell-shaped. They are further differentiated by the names 2px, 2py, and 2pz, where the x, y, and z refer to the corresponding axes.


close
 

12. Which of the following atoms has the highest electronegativity?

a. Cl
b. Br
c. N
d. F


  View Answer

12. (d) In the covalent bond, two atoms are joined by sharing electrons. Both nuclei are held by the same electron cloud. However, in most cases the two nuclei do not share the electrons equally. This happens when one atom has more electron withdrawing power than the other atom. At this time the electron cloud is denser on one atom. This result in one end of the bond being relatively negative and the other end being relatively positive. Such a bond is said to be a polar bond or to possess polarity. The bond possesses polarity when joins atoms have different tendency to attract electrons. This property of the atom is called electronegativity. Out of the given choices, fluorine (F) possess the highest electronegativity. F > O > Cl, N > Br > C, H

13. (c) The molecular formula for methyl chloride is CH3Cl. The mass of a chlorine atom in methyl chloride is 35.5 gm/mole. The molecular weight of methyl chloride is 50.5 gm/mole (1C = 12, 3H = 3 and 1Cl = 35.5). Therefore, the % mass of chlorine in methyl chloride will be 35.5/50.5 = 70%


close
 

13. What would be the percentage mass of chlorine in a molecule of methyl chloride? (C = 12 gm/mole, H = 1 gm/mole, Cl = 35.5 gm/mole).

a. 18 %
b. 50 %
c. 70 %
d. 12 %


  View Answer

13. (c) The molecular formula for methyl chloride is CH3Cl. The mass of a chlorine atom in methyl chloride is 35.5 gm/mole. The molecular weight of methyl chloride is 50.5 gm/mole (1C = 12, 3H = 3 and 1Cl = 35.5). Therefore, the % mass of chlorine in methyl chloride will be 35.5/50.5 = 70%


close
 

14. Which of the following is found to be different in isotopes of the same chemical element?

a. Protons
b. Neutrons
c. Electrons
d. Atomic number


  View Answer

14. (b) Isotopes are defined as forms of the same chemical element that differ only by the number of neutrons in their nucleus. Most elements have more than one naturally occurring isotope. The atomic number "Z" is the same in such elements, however their atomic mass "A" is different due to differ numbers of neutrons in the nucleus of the atom.


close
 

15. Which of the following groups of the periodic table contains alkali metals?

a. Group I A
b. Group II A
c. Group VII A
d. Group VIII A


  View Answer

15. (a) The alkali metals, found in group 1 of the periodic table (formerly known as group IA), are very reactive metals that do not occur freely in nature. These metals have only one electron in their outer shell. Therefore, they are ready to lose that one electron in ionic bonding with other elements. As with all metals, the alkali metals are malleable, ductile, and are good conductors of heat and electricity. The alkali metals are softer than most other metals. Cesium and francium are the most reactive elements in this group. Alkali metals can explode if they are exposed to water. The Alkali Metals are: lithium (Li), Sodium (Na), Potassium (K), Rubidium (Rb), Cesium (Cs), Francium (Fr).


close
 

To View Maths Questions, please click Answer:


  View Answer
 

17. Home ovulation tests usually detect a preovulatory surge in which of the following in the urine?

a. Prolactin
b. Oestrogen
c. Oxytocin
d. Progesterone
e. Luteinizing hormone


  View Answer

17. Home ovulation tests usually detect a preovulatory surge in which of the following in the urine?

a. Prolactin
b. Oestrogen
c. Oxytocin
d. Progesterone
e. Luteinizing hormone

Answer: (e). An ovulation home test is used by women to help determine the time in the menstrual cycle when getting pregnant is most likely. The test detects a rise in luteinizing hormone (LH) in the urine. A rise in this hormone signals the ovary to release the egg.


close
 

18. Which of the following information is TRUE ABOUT anaerobic respiration? (Select All that apply)
 
a. Waste products are carbon dioxide and water.
b. It may produce between 36 and 38 ATP molecules.
c. In animals, including humans, the anaerobic cycle produces lactic acid, which causes muscle cramps.
d. The fermentation process in anaerobic respiration is roughly 5 percent as effective as what cells can do when they have access to oxygen.
e. In bacteria, it may produce nitrite, nitrogen gas, hydrogen sulfide, methane and acetic acid.



  View Answer

18. Which of the following information is TRUE ABOUT anaerobic respiration? (Select All that apply)
 
a. Waste products are carbon dioxide and water.
b. It may produce between 36 and 38 ATP molecules.
c. In animals, including humans, the anaerobic cycle produces lactic acid, which causes muscle cramps.
d. The fermentation process in anaerobic respiration is roughly 5 percent as effective as what cells can do when they have access to oxygen.
e. In bacteria, it may produce nitrite, nitrogen gas, hydrogen sulfide, methane and acetic acid.
 
Answer (c, d and e). "Anaerobic" means without oxygen, and respiration refers to the processes in a cell that convert biochemical energy, such as that found in glucose, into usable energy in the form of ATP. Waste products like carbon dioxide are also produced during this process.

The fermentation process in anaerobic respiration is roughly 5 percent as effective as what cells can do when they have access to oxygen. An aerobic cycle may produce between 36 and 38 ATP molecules, while anaerobic respiration only creates 2 ATP molecules.

Since muscles often run out of oxygen during extreme exertion, anaerobic respiration keeps them running. In animals, including humans, the anaerobic cycle produces lactic acid, which causes muscle cramps. In order for these cramps to stop, oxygen must find its way back into the muscle again so these cells can switch back to aerobic respiration and stop building up lactic acid.

Anaerobic respiration is also common in bacteria that live in environments without oxygen; depending on the bacteria, the products of their respiration include nitrite, nitrogen gas, hydrogen sulfide, methane and acetic acid.


close
 

19. Which of the following best describes the Capitation System?
 
a. Risk free income for healthcare service providers.
b. Healthcare provider may get more incentive to provide an extended treatment to a patient.
c. A fixed amount of money per patient per unit of time paid in advance to the physician for the delivery of health care services.
d. A patient gets more benefit if he/she gets services from Healthcare provider receiving reimbursement through capitation.
e. Free prescription benefits to patients.



  View Answer

19. Which of the following best describes the Capitation System?
 
a. Risk free income for healthcare service providers.
b. Healthcare provider may get more incentive to provide an extended treatment to a patient.
c. A fixed amount of money per patient per unit of time paid in advance to the physician for the delivery of health care services.
d. A patient gets more benefit if he/she gets services from Healthcare provider receiving reimbursement through capitation.
e. Free prescription benefits to patients.

Answer: Capitation payments are used by managed care organizations to control health care costs. Capitation payments control use of health care resources by putting the physician at financial risk for services provided to patients. At the same time, in order to ensure that patients do not receive suboptimal care through under-utilization of health care services, managed care organizations measure rates of resource utilization in physician practices. These reports are made available to the public as a measure of health care quality, and can be linked to financial rewards, such as bonuses.
 
Capitation is a fixed amount of money per patient per unit of time paid in advance to the physician for the delivery of health care services. The actual amount of money paid is determined by the ranges of services that are provided, the number of patients involved, and the period of time during which the services are provided. Capitation rates are developed using local costs and average utilization of services and therefore can vary from one region of the country to another. In many plans, a risk pool is established as a percentage of the capitation payment. Money in this risk pool is withheld from the physician until the end of the fiscal year. If the health plan does well financially, the money is paid to the physician; if the health plan does poorly, the money is kept to pay the deficit expenses.
 
When the primary care provider signs a capitation agreement, a list of specific services that must be provided to patients is included in the contract. The amount of the capitation will be determined in part by the number of services provided and will vary from health plan to health plan, but most capitation payment plans for primary care services include the following:
 
·         Preventive, diagnostic, and treatment services
·         Injections, immunizations, and medications administered in the office
·         Outpatient laboratory tests done either in the office or at a designated laboratory
·         Health education and counseling services performed in the office
·         Routine vision and hearing screening


close
 

20. Which of the following information is/are TRUE ABOUT Essential Fatty Acids? [Select ALL That Apply]
 
a. Linoleic and alpha-linolenic are essential fatty acids.
b. Arachidonic acid is classified as ‘conditionally essential’ fatty acid.
c. Ideally, in the diet, the ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids should be between 1:1 and 4:1.
d. Excessive intake of omega-6 fatty acids can cause the deficiency of omega-3 fatty acids.



  View Answer

20. Which of the following information is/are TRUE ABOUT Essential Fatty Acids? [Select ALL That Apply]
 
a. Linoleic and alpha-linolenic are essential fatty acids.
b. Arachidonic acid is classified as ‘conditionally essential’ fatty acid.
c. Ideally, in the diet, the ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids should be between 1:1 and 4:1.
d. Excessive intake of omega-6 fatty acids can cause the deficiency of omega-3 fatty acids.

Answer (a, b, c and d). Essential fatty acids, or EFAs, are fatty acids that humans and other animals must ingest because the body requires them for good health but cannot synthesize them.
 
Only two fatty acids are known to be essential for humans: alpha-linolenic acid (an omega-3 fatty acid) and linoleic acid (an omega-6 fatty acid). Some other fatty acids are sometimes classified as "conditionally essential," meaning that they can become essential under some developmental or disease conditions; examples include docosahexaenoic acid and gamma-linolenic acid.
 
It is not only important to incorporate good sources of omega-3 and omega-6s in a diet, but also consume these fatty acids in the proper ratio. Omega-6 fatty acids compete with omega-3 fatty acids for use in the body, and therefore excessive intake of omega-6 fatty acids can inhibit the use of omega-3 fatty acids by the body.
 
Ideally, the ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids should be between 1:1 and 4:1. Instead, most Americans consume these fatty acids at a ratio of omega-6: omega-3 between 10:1 and 25:1, and are consequently unable to reap the benefits of omega-3s.
 
This imbalance is due to a reliance on processed foods and oils, which are now common in the Western diet. To combat this issue it is necessary to eat a low-fat diet with minimal processed foods and with naturally occurring omega-3 fatty acids. A lower omega-6: omega-3 ratio is desirable for reducing the risk of many chronic diseases.
 
Arachidonic acid is not one of the essential fatty acids. However, it does become essential if there is a deficiency in linoleic acid or if there is an inability to convert linoleic acid to arachidonic acid.


close




Free USA Shipping! No Minimum Order.
Free International Shipping! Over $200 or More.