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Which of the following is/are non-economic costs associated with Medication Error?

I. loss of trust
II. reduced satisfaction
III. physical and psychological discomfort

a. I only
b. III only
c. I and II only
d. II and III only
e. All

Answer (e): In the two decades since the Institute of Medicine (IOM) released its landmark report providing recommendations for addressing medication errors, the focus on medication safety continues.

A recent meta-analysis of studies spanning from 2000 to 2019 suggest one in 20 patients are exposed to preventable harm in medical care with 25% of incidents being medication-related.

Medication errors impact an estimated 1.5 million people every year.

In 2019, Americans filled 5.96 billion prescriptions (30-day equivalent) which would result in an estimated 93,600,000 errors given a medication dispensing error rate of 1.57%.
The burden of medication errors is high.

Costs of treating drug-related injuries in hospitals are $3.5 billion a year,3 and the morbidity and mortality associated with medication errors is estimated to be $77 billion each year.

Beyond economic costs, errors are costly in terms of patients' loss of trust, reduced satisfaction and physical and psychological discomfort.

They are costly as health professionals lose morale and frustration at providing less than the best care possible.

Continued efforts to address medication error causes are critical to improve medication safety and public health. Pharmacists and the pharmacy team have important roles to play in preventing medication errors.