The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved Insulin Human Inhalation Powder, a rapid-acting inhaled insulin to improve glycemic control in adults with diabetes mellitus. It is available under the trade name:
Answer: (e), Afrezza. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved Afrezza (insulin human) Inhalation Powder, a rapid-acting inhaled insulin to improve glycemic control in adults with diabetes mellitus. Afrezza is available as single-use cartridges of (4 units, 8 units and 12 units).
Afrezza is a rapid-acting inhaled insulin that is administered at the beginning of each meal.Afrezza should only be administered via oral inhalation using the AFREZZA Inhaler. Afrezza is administered using a single inhalation per cartridge.
Afrezza is not a substitute for long-acting insulin. Afrezza must be used in combination with long-acting insulin in patients with type 1 diabetes, and it is not recommended for the treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis, or in patients who smoke.
Step 1: Starting Mealtime Dose:
1. Insulin Naïve Individuals: Start on 4 units of Afrezza at each meal.
2. Individuals Using Subcutaneous Mealtime (Prandial) Insulin: Determine the appropriate Afrezza dose for each meal by converting from the injected dose using Figure 1.
3. Individuals Using Subcutaneous Pre-mixed Insulin: Estimate the mealtime injected dose by dividing half of the total daily injected pre-mixed insulin dose equally among the three meals of the day. Convert each estimated injected mealtime dose to an appropriate Afrezza dose using Figure 1. Administer half of the total daily injected pre-mixed dose as an injected basal insulin dose.
Afrezza has a Boxed Warning advising that acute bronchospasm has been observed in patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Afrezza should not be used in patients with chronic lung disease, such as asthma or COPD because of this risk.
The most common adverse reactions associated with Afrezza in clinical trials were hypoglycemia, cough, and throat pain or irritation.